History Podcasts

The Rising Of The Revenant: Medieval Zombies As Ostension

The Rising Of The Revenant: Medieval Zombies As Ostension

During the mid-to-latter years of the 12th century respected chroniclers working in cathedrals and monasteries across England began writing, in all seriousness, about corpses rising from their graves to wander through the streets of towns spreading pestilence and death in their wake. Similar accounts popped up as late as 1370 AD in continental Europe. To the modern reader, these accounts sound uncomfortably similar to the tales of zombie plagues familiar to all who read about it in novels or seeing it on television and at the movies. So, what was happening 850 years ago? Did parts of England actually have a real problem with the walking dead? Was it a form of ‘moral panic’ or mass hysteria? Or was it even what modern folklorists would call ‘ostension’ or an urban legend?

William of Newburgh

William Of Newburgh

The most prolific and detailed author of these accounts was the Augustinian canon and chronicler William Parvus (1135?-1198), a man better known to history as William of Newburgh, after Newburgh Priory in North Yorkshire, where he lived and worked. He said: “ It would not be easy to believe the corpses of the dead should sally (I know not by what agency) from their graves, and should wander about to the terror or destruction of the living, and again return to the tomb, which of its own accord spontaneously opened to receive them, did not frequent examples, occurring in our own times, suffice to establish this fact, to the truth of which there is abundant testimony ”. He went on the say: “ were I to write down all the instances of this kind which I have ascertained to have befallen in our times, the undertaking would be beyond measure laborious and troublesome ,” and added, in a reference to another incident, that Bishop Hugh of Lincoln had been warned “ such things often happened in England…” In other words William of Newburgh was of the opinion these reports of the undead were not just reliable and accurate but also widespread – a plague of zombies in fact.

Anne Boleyn in the Tower by Edouard Cibot (1799–1877)

A Variety Of Undead

Who or what were these undead creatures? The term used almost universally by the English chroniclers of that era was ‘revenant’ but what is a revenant? Setting the term into some context, to people living in the Middle Ages, the supernatural threats they believed they faced included, firstly, demons, imps and devils – all agents of the Christian church’s arch-enemy Satan


Where do zombies come from, anyway?

It’s not like God created them.

I mean, every human attribute is gone.

We’ve heard that zombies have something to do with Haitian voodoo the word ‘zombie’ means “animated corpse” in some form of Creole I am not familiar with. I did learn Haitian Creole during my post-quake work there, but there is no word for zombie as we define it.

Moreover, I attended a few voodoo ceremonies there and they are nothing like what we might imagine. No stumbling zombies roaming the island in search of human flesh. Just very much alive Haitians touched by religious fervor.

Zombies? Not any that I ever saw.

I mean, no one tried to eat me.

A few chicken-blood-smeared Haitians whirled into me during the frenzied voodoo ceremonies. And yeah, I screamed like I was dying then got laughed at by the locals. But embarrassment was the only repercussion.

I left Haiti each time with my brains in tact.

And less ignorant than before I arrived.

So, if not from Haitian voodoo, where did zombies originate?

Well, historical documents say the first appearance of zombies was in one of the oldest works of literature: the Epic of Gilgamesh . In this tome, Ishtar says, “I will raise up the dead and they will eat the living. And the dead will outnumber the living.”

I’m sure this will be fine once we’re dead, but right now? Terrifying!

The fact is that most ancient civilizations had a deep-seated fear of corpses rising from the dead…

2 nd century BCE, China: the ancients performed burial rituals to make sure the dead passed into the afterworld, and didn’t come back to feed on the living. But sometimes, they messed up the ritual and all hell broke loose.

The living dead was called ‘Jiang Shi.’ It was a hungry zombie that came back to munch on the living. But it wasn’t just hungry – it was pissed off. At its family for not burying its body properly.

You see, ancient Chinese believed that when you didn’t bury a body the right way, its spirit can’t move into the afterworld. It gets stuck here, sort of between worlds, and this enrages it.

A righteous, raging zombie returning to eat your guts…

7 th century Arabia: Arab folklore says the punishment for living an immoral life was that one became a zombie. The ancients called them ‘ghouls,’ and they were female demons who were believed to have lived as prostitutes when they were alive. This hussy demon would hide in the desert (exactly where does one hide in a desert??), then jump out at passers-by, screeching like a siren.

Though this frightening ‘ghoul’ is not described as the typical zombie we know today, its name was adopted by the godfather of zombies – George Romero – for his ‘ Night of the Living Dead ‘ zombies.

8 th century Scandinavia: Norse mythology had a horrific zombie called the ‘Draugr.’ This rotting creature was an undead viking ravenous for human flesh. It came back as a zombie machine, unable to be stopped. The only way to get rid of a Draugr was to lure it back into the ground from whence it came.

But here’s the really scary thing about this zombie: the Draugr wasn’t the brain-dead zombie of today. Even after death, this zombie retained its intelligence. It knew it was dead. It knew it was a flesh-eating monster.

This Nordic zombie was the most terrifying zombie in history.

12 th century England: this is where the zombie we know today originated. Western Europe ancients called it the ‘Revenant.’ It was a lumbering, hungry zombie which crawled up out of its grave to follow a mindless internal GPS toward human flesh.

How do we know about this antecedent to the zombies we know and love? We can thank William of Newburgh, history’s first zombie writer. Before George Romero was even an erotic twinge in his parent’s loins, William of Newburgh was documenting every detail of the zombie undead.

The Church of England gobbled his writings the way zombies gobble brains. This was because they had no other way of understanding, and thereby protecting themselves from the undead.


The Returned

During the Middle Ages the idea that the dead might return to visit the living was certainly present but not all folk beliefs were written down. A rather disturbing and perhaps one of the more well-documented examples of medieval beliefs in the dead coming back to trouble the living is the phenomena of the revenant.

The French ‘revenir‘ translates to ‘to come back/ return’. ‘Revenant’ can be used as a noun for ‘ghost’. The revenants of medieval folklore are usually a bit more substantial than our idea of ghosts. Revenants were often described as having physically left their graves, although they were not always visible to everyone at all times, and they might nearly crush people with their weight. Many were presented as reanimated corpses who physically interacted with the living and their spaces. To the men writing down accounts of revenants, such stories of the dead rising and walking again might confirm the Christian belief in the Resurrection.

Stories about revenants sometimes implied that they had been quite wicked in life, which perhaps left them open to corruption, or occasionally the wrath of a saint, even in death. Some accounts simply stated that the cause of the revenant problem was uncertain, even when their desciption of the revenant’s character paints a less than flattering picture. Sometimes a revenant was laid to rest close to or on a significant date for Christians, which may explain why some revenants were supposedly walking about without any explicit explanation as to what they had been like in life. Others were said to have died during horrible events which prevented them from being able to rest and, rather than being actively malevolent, merely acted as a warning to the living of their imminent death.

Although we might be tempted to make comparisons with zombies, the folklore presents revenants as having a bit more going on upstairs than your average zombie today. The figure of the zombie originated in Haiti and today it is mostly portrayed as little more than a ravenous corpse, often both vector and victim of disease in popular culture. The gory, modern zombie is fairly removed from its original links to the Transatlantic slave trade but is itself enslaved by the thing that drives it to chow down on former friends and family. Some revenants were seemingly possessed by spirits but there’s a sense that some sort of intelligence is still actively at play something in the revenant is deliberately causing mischief, perhaps enjoying it even.

The Old Woman (The Dance of Death), Hans Holbein the Younger and Hans Lützelberger. Accession number: P.3212 Source: the Whitworth

Hone-Onna

Literally translated as Bone-Woman. As the name says, a hone-onna is a skeleton disguised as a handsome woman who attracts unnawary men and drains their vital force. Even after death, the Hone-Onna will keep up strong feelings for her lover, what will make her rise from her grave every night and wander to his loved's house. Her vision, at first will be shocking for those who believed in her death, but can quickly become a reason of happynes, that blinds them form the fact tha something can be wrong. Even Hone-Onna is not aware of ehr situation, as she is just moved by love, and return from the deads to saty with him again. The Hone-Onna will appear to their lovers win the same way as she appeared when alive. Only those who were involved in her love will see her like this. Those who weren't involved, or that have a strong religious faith will see through her disguise. Once her true form is not revealed, she will keep appearing every night to her love, and will begone every morning. In each relationship they have, she will drain his love's life force little by little, who will usually ends up eak and sick. Withoutinterference, the man will dise and both will be taken by the arms of death. Those who can see through her true appearance, may try try to warn the victim of the situation, which after fidning the truth, may reject her, or not. Even if rejected, the Hone-Onna will keep coming back every night for her lover. As her body putrefy, she will look even more attractive to her lover. The best way to protect a place from ghosts like Hone-Onna is with enchantings and prays, but only as long as the owner of the place wants to.


Famous apache woman

strong leaders of our peoples--this board is dedicated to celebrating the women whose footsteps we walk in. Messiah on Temple Mount: Are We Nearing the End of Time? [Online]Available at: http://www.manataka.org/page1139.html, Native Languages of the Americas, 2015. Among the important influences in Lozen’s life was her older brother, Victorio. As the story goes, Pine … Western Apache include Northern Tonto, Southern Tonto, Cibecue, White Mountain and San Carlos groups. "Lozen" the most famous Apache women As chief Victorio - her brother - said, “Lozen is…strong as a man, braver than most, and cunning in … I believe that intellectual engagement by advocates from both ends of the spectrum would serve to. Read More, " Lozen – A Secret Name She fought alongside her brother, and often sat beside him at council ceremonies, as well as participating in warrior ceremonies. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. Eventually, Lozen and her warriors joined forces with Geronimo, another prominent war chief of the Apache. ( Public Domain ). Mary White Rowlandson: she lived about 1637 to 1711 and was a captive in 1675 for almost three months. She is said to be buried in Alabama in an unmarked grave. We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives. Lozen is a shield to her people.”. On March 27, 1973, she represented Marlon Brando at the 45th Academy Awards, where on his behalf she declined the Best Actor award for his performance in The Godfather. Apache was a female Viet Cong sniper and interrogator known as "Apache", because of her methods of torturing US Marines and ARVN troops and letting them bleed to death. Eskiminzin was an important Aravaipa Apache Chief during the Apache Wars. Later in her life, she joined the legendary Geronimo, together with another famous woman warrior called Lozen. [5], Apache was the basis for the villain of the same name in H.E. Great Salt Lake of Utah gives up its Prehistoric Gambling Secrets from the 13th Century, First complete genome sequence of an ancient North American offers clues to Native American ancestry, Geronimo: The Apache Warrior that fought to Avenge the Slaughter of his Family, Palatkwapi-Sedona: City of the Star People, http://www.greatdreams.com/apache/lozen.htm#nana. I love music, dance, art, animals, and fashion. Their Origins May Surprise You, Ice Age Figurines and the Sanctity of Prehistoric Obesity, Surveillance of Looters Leads to Discovery of Sarcophagi in Turkey, The Rising Of The Revenant: Medieval Zombies As Ostension. Great in personality, bravery, unconditional love and unfleeting courage. [9] In interviews with Hathcock and Captain Edward James Land, conducted by Charles Henderson, Apache was a high profile target according to Military Intelligence. I was taught that Lozen meant " Little Sister ". The hydraulic telegraph of Aeneas – long-distance communication of antiquity, The Indian Sage who developed Atomic Theory 2,600 years ago. The film sees regular go-to guy Al Cliver as an old-fashioned soldier with a good heart who finds himself in possession of the titular character, an Apache as played by Clara Hopf who after a couple of film roles in the 1970s became a make-up artist. Apache Women in History. Ancient Anomalous Human Skeletons: Humanity Could be Much Older Than We Think, Do you dare enter a fairy ring? 1Lyda Conley (1869-1946) One of the first female Native attorneys, Eliza Burton “Lyda” Conley … Lozen was one of these, as she died in 1889 as a result of tuberculosis. Roberts, Craig Charles W. Sasser (2004). This question continues to go unanswered by the academic and archaeological world. A Western Apache woman from the San Carlos group. Their name comes from a Zuni word meaning “enemy.” Eastern Apache were predominantly hunter gatherers, whilst their Western counterparts relied more on farming, but were driven from their lands by Comanche. [Online]Available at: http://www.greatdreams.com/apache/lozen.htm#nana, I am a university student doing a BA degree in Archaeology. The Carnac Stones have been one of the most puzzling archaeological artifacts in the world for hundreds of years. Lozen is also said to have been gifted with the ability to detect the movement of her enemies. Lozen was a female warrior of the Chiricahua Apaches (known also as the Members or Warm Springs Apache) who lived during the 19th century. By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Apache Women, Credit – DesertUSA Born a Rebel in Apacheria. He was instrumental in the negotiations which set the terms which established the San Carlos Reservation. Lozen: Apache Warrior Woman. Lozen and a small band of warriors wanted revenge, and began raids across New Mexico and Arizona. In 1880, Victorio was killed in a battle. Then, she would follow the Sun, whilst praying to Ussen, the Apache Creator of Life. [11] Apache often emasculated her captives, according to Hathcock in another interview. Lozen was born during the 1840s, perhaps around the middle or towards the end of that decade. Tommy is an innocent cavalry officer who falls in love with a beautiful Apache woman (Yara Kewa) after rescuing her from a nasty gun smuggler named Honest Jeremy. Photo source: Keeping the Peace, Cleere, J., 2015. The Apache were not used to the climate of their new home, and many are said to have died of diseases such as diphtheria and tuberculosis. Dahteste in 1886 Dahteste was a Choconen Apache woman warrior, and being married and having children didn’t stop her to participate in many raiding parties together with her first husband Ahnandia. Famous Apache people including chiefs, medicine men, women of note, and modern day heroes. [10], Apache was reportedly known for "torturing prisoners within earshot of U.S. bases", according to C.W.Henderson. By the age of 20, Lozen was apparently an expert at stealing horses, which probably accounts for the title she used in public. Apache was initially overcome by culture shock when the arrived in the 2020s, and was now living with a woman named Crystel Ario, who took her in after she met her in the streets, and was intrigued by her claim that she was a Vietnamese sniper. Sacheen Cruz Littlefeather is an Apache actress and activist for Native American rights. Born into the Chihenne band during the 1840s, Lozen was, according to legends, able to use her powers in battle to learn the movements of the enemy. The Apache Indians needed a woman with Lozen’s unique talent because they didn’t have enough warriors or enough power to battle the overwhelming white invaders. Photos are NSFW. Western Women: Lozen fought alongside Victorio, Geronimo. The Apache However, Hathcock was not the only infamous Vietnam figurehead being talked about and feared. The Ghost Ship is a shipwreck that was discovered in the middle of the Baltic Sea. 1. Lozen and Dahteste (sitting together in the upper part of the photo) along with Geronimo. Virginia: Loti Group. Lozen’s personal name seems to be no longer known today, not by the general public at least. The name ‘Lozen’ is an Apache war title, given to one who has stolen horses in a raid. " But pick up any book sur- m veying … New Mexico, Arizona, and Northern Mexico were all known as Apacheria. This was due to the belief that by doing so, he / she was conserving his / her spiritual power. / Tell Us Your Best Ghost Story, Harvard Scientists Say That There May Be An Ancient Earth Inside Earth. She was the sister of Victorio, a prominent chief. Two years later, they were sent onto another reservation. Chiricahua Apache chief Victorio, circa 1875. These are some women captives—some are famous (or infamous), some less well-known. The most famous Apache woman was LOZEN, the two-spirit warrior shaman who guided her people as they fled across the border, eluding US and Mexican armies, with her medicine of raising her hands to pray and knowing where the soldiers were, to strategize movements and her valiant fighting power. She was born within sight of the Sacred Mountain near Ojo Caliente where the People began. Her brother was Chief Victorio. From boyhood he had been groomed to be Chief of the Chiricahua Apache tribe. Victorio, Lozen and the other Apache warriors continued their fight against their oppressors. Her childhood name was Little Sister, which later became Lozen – meaning spirited. Between the four of these women, countless armies were led, several battles won, and serious levels of badassery achieved. See more ideas about Native american peoples, Native american indians, Native american culture. being in charge of domestic affairs. Pocahontas was a Native American woman who married an Englishman called John Rolfe and became a celebrity in London in the last year of her life. On Hill 55 near Duc Pho, Marines had been dying at the hands of a female Viet Cong sniper and interrogator nicknamed Apache. Lozen was born near … Now he has to live with it", http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/73790019.html?dids=73790019:73790019&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Jan+18%2C+1987&author=Pete+Earley&pub=The+Washington+Post+(pre-1997+Fulltext)&desc=THE+SNIPER%3B+With+the+encouragement+of+the+Marine+Corps%2C+Carlos+Norman+Hathcock+II+killed+93+Vietnamese.+He+managed+to+live+through+it.+Now+he+has+to+live+with+it&pqatl=google, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Apache_(Viet_Cong_soldier)?oldid=5187684. Mary Rowlandson - … [4][5][6] His partner, Captain Edward James Land, manned the spotting scope, while Hathcock hit her with both of the rounds that he had fired. She was killed in 1966 by Carlos Hathcock, who was part of a sniper team of the United States Marine Corps. The location of her birth is just one part of her legend. 300,000 years ago, nine human species walked the Earth. 18+ I'm a Canadian female. Bedonkohe … Other writers have used this term to refer to all non-Navajo Apachean … The name ‘Lozen’ is an Apache war title, given to one who has stolen horses in a raid.

Latest posts by (see all)

Share this:

Like this:

Previous article

SIMILAR ARTICLES

Was Aamir Khan once thrown out of Sourav Ganguly’s home?

If we pissed you off, if you loved us, if you want to criticize us, or if you want to give us a pat on the back, contact us at [email protected] and we’ll leave our macher jhol-bhaat aside and look into it immediately.

We promise we’ll reply within 4 days (In case we spill gorom cha on our keyboards, it might be 7 days!).


Origins in Folklore

Revenants have cropped up in a variety of mythologies, including but not limited to Old Irish Celtic, Norse, and English in the time of the Middle Ages, when it was thought that the dead could reanimate from their graves and attack or kill the living. Folklorists tend to interchangeably mix the term "revenant" with vampires and ghosts, making it a pretty generic term for the undead.

Abbot monk Augustin Calmet provided extensive research on the subject of revenants in 1751, drawing comparisons to Greek and Egyptian ancients and referencing an old belief that "magic could not only cause death, but also evoke the souls of the deceased as well." He also related revenants to sorcerers who sucked the blood of victims and what was relayed through rumor of the vampires of Poland, Hungary, and Moravia.

One possible precursor to the revenant legends comes from Norse mythology, that being the draugr, a term anyone who has played Skyrim will already be familiar with. Also called the aptrgangr ("again-walker"), these two terms refer to a being who walks after death. Stories involving the draugr and aptrgangr are often in the context of a confrontation at the site of its burial mound.

In Finnish folklore and ghost stories, "dead-child beings" are described as revenants animated by restless spirits who can be laid to rest by baptismal or other religious rites.

Caribbean folklore also holds references to revenant-like beings in lore focused on "the soucouyant" or "soucriant" in Dominica, Trinidadian, and Guadeloupean tales. The soucouyant or soucriant by folklorish definition is a shapeshifting Caribbean folklore character who appears as an old female recluse by day—by night, she strips off her wrinkled skin and puts it in a mortar, then (in her true form) flies as a fireball across the sky in search of a victim. Goals, right?

These Caribbean revenants are also known by the names of Ole-Higue or Loup-garou depending on the region. Loup-garou legends actually step into the territory of werewolves—my first contact with the term came from reading 1997 paranormal romance novel Blood & Chocolate by Annette Curtis Klause in my middle school days.


Walking Dead? Medieval Villagers Zombie-Proofed Their Corpses

Zombies are hardly a modern preoccupation. For centuries, people have been worried about corpses rising from their graves to torment the living. Now, archaeologists in England think they've found evidence of medieval methods to prevent the dead from walking.

The researchers revisited a pit of human remains that had been dug up at Wharram Percy, an abandoned village in North Yorkshire that dates back to nearly 1,000 years ago. The corpses had been burned and mutilated after death, and the archaeologists offered two possible explanations: either the condition of the corpses was due to cannibalism, or the bodies were dismembered to ensure they wouldn't walk from their graves, according to the study published April 2 in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.

Study leader Simon Mays, a human-skeletal biologist at Historic England, said the idea that the bones "are the remains of corpses burnt and dismembered to stop them walking from their graves seems to fit the evidence best." [See Photos of the 'Zombie' Burial at Wharram Percy]

People at the time believed that reanimation could occur when individuals who had a strong life force committed evil deeds before death, or when individuals experienced a sudden or violent death, Mays and his colleagues wrote. To stop these corpses from haunting the living, English medieval texts suggest that bodies would be dug up and subjected to mutilation and burning.

When the jumbled bones were first excavated in the 1960s, they were originally interpreted as dating from earlier, perhaps Roman-era, burials that were inadvertently disturbed and reburied by villagers in the late Middle Ages. The bones were buried in unconsecrated ground, after all &mdashnear a house and not in the official cemetery.

However, radiocarbon dating showed that the bones were contemporary with the medieval town, and chemical analyses revealed that the bones came from people who were local to the region.

What happened to the corpses after death could rival scenes from a gory zombie movie.

The bones from Wharram Percy came from at least 10 people between the ages of 2 and 50, according to the new study. Burning patterns from experiments with cadavers suggest that the bodies were set ablaze when the bones still had flesh on them. (A fleshed corpse was thought to be more threatening than a bare skeleton.) The scientists also found cut marks consistent with dismemberment, and chop marks that suggest the skeletons were decapitated after death.

"If we are right, then this is the first good archaeological evidence we have for this practice," Mays said in a statement, referring to the zombie-safety precautions. "It shows us a dark side of medieval beliefs and provides a graphic reminder of how different the medieval view of the world was from our own."

Stephen Gordon, a scholar of medieval and early-modern supernatural belief, who was not involved in the study, said he found the interpretation plausible. [7 Strange Ways Humans Act Like Vampires]

"Although, of course, one cannot discount the possibility that cannibalism was indeed a cause, I do think the evidence veers toward a local belief in the dangerous dead," Gordon told Live Science in an email.

Gordon noted that several examples of revenants, or reanimated corpses, come from 12th-century northern English sources, so archaeological evidence from Yorkshire from around 1100 to 1300 is certainly to be expected.

There are still some mysteries concerning the bones, the authors of the study noted, such as how the human remains ended up together in this particular pit, especially since they span the 11th to 13th centuries. It's also unclear why, if the corpses were feared, they would be reburied in a domestic context.

What's more, revenants, at least according to written English sources, were commonly associated with males, but skeletons from both sexes and children were found in the pit. Gordon, however, doesn't think this should invalidate the walking-dead argument.

"The written evidence in English chronicles and saints' lives, which focus on male revenants, represents just a small (and highly constructed) snapshot of the realities of everyday belief," Gordon said in the email.

A bishop of the Holy Roman Empire, Burchard of Worms, writing around A.D. 1000, "alludes to the fact that children who died before baptism, or women who died in childbirth, were believed to walk after death and needed to be 'transfixed,'" Gordon said. He pointed to another case, from the 14th-century Bohemian chronicler Neplach of Opatovice, in which a female walking corpse had to be cremated. "As such, it is possible that female corpses were indeed believed to walk after death in England."

The bones from Wharram Percy might not represent the very first revenant burial found in Europe. In several so-called "vampire burials" in a 17th-century Polish cemetery, the corpses have sickles around their necks. One interpretation is that the blades were meant to keep the dead from rising.


Contents

Various entities, some human, some not, battle various escalating threats in and around Eugene, Oregon. Vampires, parental fights, zombies, romance triangles, cabin fever, delayed apocalyptic battles and technical support are just some of the situations under-prepared, heavily manipulated, not-quite-human twenty-somethings have to deal with.

  • Gwendolyn "Gwen" Dylan (née Price): The main protagonist, a revenant or main "zombie".
  • Eleanor "Ellie" Stuart (née Roosevelt): A ghost who died in the 1960s and had never left Oregon.
  • Scott "Spot": A were-terrier, friend to Gwen and Ellie.
  • Gavin Price: Gwen's brother and Scott's prospective boyfriend (later husband as of iZombie #28).
  • Horatio: A monster hunter and Gwen's boyfriend.
  • Vincent Tan: A friend and co-worker of Scott.
  • Ashok Patel: A friend and co-worker of Scott and Vincent.
  • John Amon: A mummy who was responsible for Gwen Dylan becoming a zombie.

In November 2013, The CW ordered a pilot episode named after the comic from writer/producers Rob Thomas and Diane Ruggiero-Wright, who developed the property as a supernatural procedural drama for the network. [7] On February 25, 2014, Deadline reported that Malcolm Goodwin, Aly Michalka and David Anders were cast as Clive, Peyton and Blaine. [8] On March 7, 2014, actor Robert Buckley was cast as Major, the lead character's former fiancé, an environmental engineer and former college football star who is extremely likable. [9] On March 12, 2014, actress Rose McIver was cast as the lead character Olivia "Liv" Moore. [10] iZombie had been picked up for the 2014-2015 fall season by The CW on May 8, 2014, but was pushed back to air as a mid-season replacement. [11] It debuted on The CW on March 17, 2015 and concluded on August 1, 2019 with 71 episodes airing in total.

While the series retains the lead character's ability to absorb memories and abilities through eating brains, her backstory is substantially changed. Liv (changed from Gwen) is a medical intern in Seattle, Washington who is turned into a zombie after being scratched by one. The series picks up five months after the incident Liv now works as a King County morgue assistant, along with Dr. Ravi Chakrabarti played by Rahul Kohli, which provides her with a steady supply of brains from murder victims which she must eat in order to retain her intelligence. A side effect of eating brains is that she experiences the deceased's memories in the form of visions, and temporarily absorbs their habits and abilities which she uses to assist in solving crimes.

Michael Allred, co-creator and lead artist for the comic book series, designed and drew the opening credits for the series. [12]


Walking dead? How medieval villagers "zombie-proofed" their corpses

Zombies are hardly a modern preoccupation. For centuries, people have been worried about corpses rising from their graves to torment the living. Now, archaeologists in England think they&rsquove found evidence of medieval methods to prevent the dead from walking.

The researchers revisited a pit of human remains that had been dug up at Wharram Percy, an abandoned village in North Yorkshire that dates back to nearly 1,000 years ago. The corpses had been burned and mutilated after death, and the archaeologists offered two possible explanations: either the condition of the corpses was due to cannibalism, or the bodies were dismembered to ensure they wouldn&rsquot walk from their graves, according to the study published April 2 in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.

Study leader Simon Mays, a human-skeletal biologist at Historic England, said the idea that the bones &ldquoare the remains of corpses burnt and dismembered to stop them walking from their graves seems to fit the evidence best.&rdquo [See Photos of the &lsquoZombie&rsquo Burial at Wharram Percy]

People at the time believed that reanimation could occur when individuals who had a strong life force committed evil deeds before death, or when individuals experienced a sudden or violent death, Mays and his colleagues wrote. To stop these corpses from haunting the living, English medieval texts suggest that bodies would be dug up and subjected to mutilation and burning.

Researchers think the bodies from Wharram Percy still had flesh on the bones when they were burned. Historic England

When the jumbled bones were first excavated in the 1960s, they were originally interpreted as dating from earlier, perhaps Roman-era, burials that were inadvertently disturbed and reburied by villagers in the late Middle Ages. The bones were buried in unconsecrated ground, after all &mdashnear a house and not in the official cemetery.

However, radiocarbon dating showed that the bones were contemporary with the medieval town, and chemical analyses revealed that the bones came from people who were local to the region.

Trending News

What happened to the corpses after death could rival scenes from a gory zombie movie.

The bones from Wharram Percy came from at least 10 people between the ages of 2 and 50, according to the new study. Burning patterns from experiments with cadavers suggest that the bodies were set ablaze when the bones still had flesh on them. (A fleshed corpse was thought to be more threatening than a bare skeleton.) The scientists also found cut marks consistent with dismemberment, and chop marks that suggest the skeletons were decapitated after death.

Here, knife-marks can been seen on the surfaces of two rib fragments. Cut-marks and chop-marks on the bones suggest the bodies had been mutilated after death. Historic England

&ldquoIf we are right, then this is the first good archaeological evidence we have for this practice,&rdquo Mays said in a statement, referring to the zombie-safety precautions. &ldquoIt shows us a dark side of medieval beliefs and provides a graphic reminder of how different the medieval view of the world was from our own.&rdquo

Stephen Gordon, a scholar of medieval and early-modern supernatural belief, who was not involved in the study, said he found the interpretation plausible. [7 Strange Ways Humans Act Like Vampires]

&ldquoAlthough, of course, one cannot discount the possibility that cannibalism was indeed a cause, I do think the evidence veers toward a local belief in the dangerous dead,&rdquo Gordon told Live Science in an email.

Gordon noted that several examples of revenants, or reanimated corpses, come from 12th-century northern English sources, so archaeological evidence from Yorkshire from around 1100 to 1300 is certainly to be expected.

There are still some mysteries concerning the bones, the authors of the study noted, such as how the human remains ended up together in this particular pit, especially since they span the 11th to 13th centuries. It&rsquos also unclear why, if the corpses were feared, they would be reburied in a domestic context.

What&rsquos more, revenants, at least according to written English sources, were commonly associated with males, but skeletons from both sexes and children were found in the pit. Gordon, however, doesn&rsquot think this should invalidate the walking-dead argument.

&ldquoThe written evidence in English chronicles and saints&rsquo lives, which focus on male revenants, represents just a small (and highly constructed) snapshot of the realities of everyday belief,&rdquo Gordon said in the email.

A bishop of the Holy Roman Empire, Burchard of Worms, writing around A.D. 1000, &ldquoalludes to the fact that children who died before baptism, or women who died in childbirth, were believed to walk after death and needed to be &lsquotransfixed,&rsquo&rdquo Gordon said. He pointed to another case, from the 14th-century Bohemian chronicler Neplach of Opatovice, in which a female walking corpse had to be cremated. &ldquoAs such, it is possible that female corpses were indeed believed to walk after death in England.&rdquo

The bones from Wharram Percy might not represent the very first revenant burial found in Europe. In several so-called &ldquovampire burials&rdquo in a 17th-century Polish cemetery, the corpses have sickles around their necks. One interpretation is that the blades were meant to keep the dead from rising.


Ancient Greek burials prepared for zombie uprising

Ancient supernatural practices may explain why two Grecian graves contain skeletons that are pinned down with heavy objects and rocks, almost as though people wanted to trap the bodies underground, a new article finds.

Archaeologists have known about these two peculiar burials since the 1980s, when they uncovered the graves along with nearly 3,000 others at an ancient Greek necropolis in Sicily. But a new analysis suggests the two graves contained so-called "revenants," dead bodies thought to have the ability to reanimate, leave their graves and harm the living -- essentially an ancient version of zombies.

The ancient Greeks believed that, "to prevent them from departing their graves, revenants must be sufficiently 'killed,' which [was] usually achieved by incineration or dismemberment," Carrie Sulosky Weaver wrote in the article, published June 11 in the online magazine Popular Archaeology. "Alternatively, revenants could be trapped in their graves by being tied, staked, flipped onto their stomachs, buried exceptionally deep or pinned with rocks or other heavy objects." [See Photos of the Ancient Greek 'Revenant' Burials]

Sulosky Weaver, a postdoctoral fellow in the department of the history of art and architecture at the University of Pittsburgh, studied the necropolis for part of her forthcoming book, "The Bioarchaeology of Classical Kamarina: Life and Death in Greek Sicily" (University Press of Florida, 2015).

The ancient Greeks colonized Kamarina, a city-state in southeastern Sicily, in 598 B.C., and remained there until the middle of the first century A.D., Sulosky Weaver said. Inhabitants used the city's necropolis, called Passo Marinaro, from the fifth to the third centuries B.C., she added.

About 85 percent of the burials in Passo Marinaro contain intact skeletons that are either lying flat on their backs or on their sides with bent knees, according to reports from Giovanni Di Stefano, one of the site's principal excavators during the 1980s. The remaining 15 percent of the burials are cremations, and about half of the graves contain artifacts, such as terracotta vases, figurines and coins.

Trending News

Supernatural superstitions

The two unusual graves immediately caught researchers' attention.

For her book, Sulosky Weaver "needed to understand why these individuals would be buried in a different manner," she told Live Science in an email, during a dig in Turkey.

One grave held the skeletal remains of an adult of unknown sex whose teeth had lines of arrested growth -- a sign of serious malnutrition or illness, Sulosky Weaver said. The head and feet of the person were covered with "large amphora fragments. a large, two-handled ceramic vessel that was typically used for storing liquids," she wrote in the article.

The heavy amphora fragments "were presumably intended to pin the individual to the grave and prevent it from seeing or rising," she added.

A burial, at Passo Marinaro, of a person laid on his or her side with bent knees. C.L. Sulosky Weaver, courtesy of the Regional Museum of Kamarina in Sicily

Another grave contains the skeleton of a child, likely age 8 to 13. The skeleton didn't have any signs of disease, but five large stones were placed on top of it, possibly to stop a revenant from leaving the grave, Sulosky Weaver said. [8 Grisly Archaeological Discoveries]

There aren't any known photos of the graves, but Di Stefano drew sketches of each in his journal.

To learn more, Sulosky Weaver surrounded herself with research on supernatural practices among the ancient Greeks. But the Greeks were not alone in their superstitions other preindustrial societies had similar ways of viewing corpses of certain people, according to the research of folklore historian Paul Barber, she said.

For example, outsiders, illegitimate children, or babies born with abnormalities or on an inauspicious day could be revenants, Sulosky Weaver said. Other candidates included suicides victims of murder, drowning, plague and curses and people who were not properly buried, she said. [History's 10 Most Overlooked Mysteries]

The earliest example of revenant burials date to between 4500 and 3800 B.C. in Cyprus, where archaeologists found bodies in graves with millstones pinning down their heads and chests, according to the article.

Another burial uncovered on the Peloponnese Peninsula dating to between 1900 and 1600 B.C. had a large rock over an individual in a stone-built tomb, Sulosky Weaver wrote.

The work of other scholars shows that Greeks living in Kamarina also practiced with "magical" or "curse" tablets called katadesmoi, "so a supernatural explanation for the burials was possible," Sulosky Weaver said.

Katadesmoi are "lead tablets inscribed with petitions, or requests, that would be addressed to underworld deities," she told Live Science. "Usually, the petitioners wanted to gain an advantage in love or business, and it was understood that the deities would direct the spirits of the dead to fulfill the requests of the living. To ensure that the tablets reached the underworld, they would be placed in or near the graves of the recently deceased during secret nighttime ceremonies."

Researchers have found more than 600 katadesmoi from the ancient Greek culture, including 11 from Passo Marinaro, Sulosky Weaver said. Most are degraded and difficult to translate, but some have lists of names, likely of people who were the targets of curses, she said.

Interestingly, a Greco-Roman text dating from between the second century B.C. and the fifth century A.D. tells petitioners to write with ink on seashells to create katadesmoi. Researchers have found three seashells in the Passo Marinaro graves, but it's unclear whether they were intended to serve as katadesmoi, Sulosky Weaver said.

Evidence of these superstitions suggests the ancient Greeks didn't live in fear of the dead, but thought that some dead people could be dangerous or useful to the living, she said.

"Some chose to recruit the dead to achieve specific goals, while others chose to trap potentially dangerous bodies in their graves to keep the living members of the community safe," Sulosky Weaver said. "These activities shed light on some of the lesser-known facets of Greek funerary practice."


Watch the video: Battle of Arsuf 1191 AD. Total War: Attila Epic movie. Mod: Medieval Kingdom (December 2021).