Arjuna During the Battle of Kurukshetra - History
Pandavas and Kauravs were the rival forces who fought the battle of Kurukshetra against each other. The Pandavas prince Arjuna found himself in a quandary when he saw himself potholed against his own kinsmen and teachers. It was the time when his chariot driver Lord Krishna took the opportunity to explain Arjuna’s duties and responsibilities on the battle field. Different Yogic and Vedantic philosophies were told by Krishna to encourage Arjun on the battle field. This particular state of depression of Arjuna was recorded in the Bhagavad Gita. Krishna taught the larger picture of life and dharma (duty) to Arjuna.
According to Krishna’s belief the soul of every individual is perpetual and immortal but if he loses his life on the battlefield then only his material body is lost. Krishna advised Arjuna to always keep an eye on establishing the universal harmony which is one of the prime and important fundamental responsibilities. Fear and hesitations on the battlefield are the enemies while fighting for a cause.
Yogic paths of Bhakti (devotional service), karma (action), dhayana (meditation) and jnana (knowledge) were described by Krishna. The temporal ego always restricts the flourish of inner soul.
The state of Haryana goes into the celebration mood during the birth anniversary of Srimad Bhagavad Gita. The prime festival of Kurukshetra, Haryana, is celebrated while Gita Jayanti is celebrated. Kurukshetra is the place where the essence of Hindu religion was actually originated. It is going to be an enticing and charming experience for the devotees and holiday makers who visit the place during the festival.
The Bhagavat Gita is a holy book of Hindu Religion. It directs every individual how to approach his or her life in the future. It lets you know about the truth and right mode of worship to the God. It focuses on the betterment of character and life. The book comprises 700 verses.
1 Answer 1
Moha arose in Arjuna because in the war of Kurukshetra, the opponents are his kinsfolk and kindred, plus, war is about to kill them.
Read following verses of Bhagavad Gita to understand why Arjuna didn't want to fight:
1.28 O Krsna, seeing these relatives and friends who have assembled here with the intention of fighting, my limbs become languid and my mouth becomes completely dry.
1.32-34 O Govinda! What need do we have of a kingdom, or what (need) of enjoyments and livelihood? Those for whom kingdom, enjoyments and pleasures ae desired by us, viz teachers, uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law as also relatives-those very ones stand arrayed for battle risking their lives and wealth.
1.37 Therefore, it is not proper for us to kill the sons of Dhrtarastra who are our own relatives. For, O Madhava, how can we be happy by killing our kinsmen?
[ Quoted from English translation by Swami Gambhirananda ]
So, in the Kurukshetra war, Arjuna feels that it is improper to kill his venerable relatives for the sake of kingdom.
Why Did Arjuna Try To Kill His Eldest Brother In Mahabharata?
The stories of Mahabharata are not only fascinating but filled with countless incidents that give us lessons for life. Of these times, one such story is of the Pandava Brothers, Arjuna, and Yudhishthira when Arjuna tried to kill his elder brother during the Kurukshetra war.
Why Did Arjuna Try To Kill Yudhishthira during Kurukshetra War
Mentioned in Karna Parva of Mahabharata Epic, this incident relates to the declaration of Karna as Kaurava’s Senapati soon after the death of Guru Dronacharya. With the valor and skills Karna possessed, he was able to land the Pandavas in trouble.
A fierce battle ensued between Karna and Yudhishthira during which Karna managed to injure the latter with arrows. Seeing Yudhishthira weakened, his charioteer (Sarathi) took him away from the battle field. Hence, Yudhishthira had to escape. Yudhishthira was totally embarrassed by this defeat.
When Arjun came to know about this incident, he went to Krishna’s Chavani to meet his injured brother, Yudhishthira who was recovering in a tent there. When Yudhishthira saw Arjun talking to Krishna, he assumed that Arjun killed Karna and taken the revenge. However, that had not happened. The moment Yudhishthira learned that Arjuna has not killed Karna, he was infuriated and in anger, he uttered starting hurtful words to his brother. He asked Arjuna to throw away his weapons or give them to someone else.
Arjuna couldn’t handle it and he picked up his sword to kill Yudhishthira. Krishna tried to intervene and stop Arjuna from attacking his elder brother. But Arjuna informed Lord Krishna that he had taken an oath that if anyone ever asks him to give away his weapons, he would behead him.
Krishna knew there had to be a way out of this dilemma. And he came up with a suggestion. He assured Arjuna that his oath will not go waste and simultaneously he’ll also ensure that Yudhishthira stays alive. Krishna told Arjuna that a wise person cannot handle disrespect and if he ever loses respect, it’s equivalent to him being dead. Therefore, Krishna asked Arjuna to disrepute his elder brother. Arjuna knew that insulting his elder brother is a non-virtuous act and this will devastate Yudhishthira. However, Krishna went ahead and insulted Yudhishthira.
But soon after the non-virtuous act, Arjuna felt less about himself and feeling ashamed of own self, Arjuna picked up his sword again but this time to kill himself. Now, this lead Krishna to struggle a way out to save Arjuna from killing himself. And as Krishna is known to be a problem-solver, he explained to Arjuna that,
Dharma believes bragging and boastfulness about one’s own abilities in public is a sin which is equivalent to one’s own death. So, Krishna instructs Arjuna to self-praise and Arjuna did as he was told.
Arjuna touched his head to Yudhishthira’s feet seeking forgiveness. However, Yudhishthira was determined to leave the battle field but when Krishna informed him about Arjuna’s secret oath, he agreed to stay together in the war against the Kauravas.
Reason why Arjuna is the key character, although Bhima killed 100 Kauravas
One of the greatest epic, Mahabharata has the honour of being one of the longest epic in world literature. The name means “great [story of the] Bharatas.” Bharata was an early ancestor of both the Pandavas and Kauravas who fight each other in a great war. The conflict arose between two groups of cousins, the Kauravas, and Pandavas, due to the struggle for a dynastic succession for the throne of Hastinapura. Many ancient kingdoms participated as allies of the rival groups in the battle that occurred in Kurukshetra, whose modern day location is the state of Haryana.
In short, it is the story of five heroic brothers who were destined to rule a vast kingdom. Athough, all the five Pandava brothers were skilled and had an eminent role in the great war. Though, Bhim killed all the 100 Kauravas, it was Arjuna who was portrayed as the lead character.
Arjuna was fathered by the grace of Lord Indra, King of Devtas. He lived a luxurious and dramatic life and was in centre of many important events of Mahabharata. Arjuna was destined to embody his father, the warrior king. He was a diligent student of the combative arts, learning everything that his Guru, Dronacharya could teach him and attaining the status of “Maharathi” or outstanding warrior. He was particularly skilled in archery, with much of his proficiency attributable to his habit of practising in the dark. As Dronacharya’s best pupil, Arjuna received instruction in the use of the Brahmasira, an immensely powerful weapon of mass destruction.
Arjuna was the brightest and most accomplished student of Guru Drona. No other student, not even Ashwatthama, son of Drona was anywhere close to him. We’ve heard many stories about him, right from the aim at bird’s eye that portray him way superior than Bhima or any other Pandavas. When Guru Drona asked his students to capture Draupad as his Guru-Dakshina, Arjuna captured Draupad himself. Draupad was so impressed by him that he wished Arjuna to marry his daughter . When no one could hit the fish’s eye in Draupdi Swayamvara it was only Arjuna who was able to complete the task. Futhermore, Lord Agni (Fire) had even gifted Arjuna with his famous bow, Gandiva, an incandescent chariot with four horses yoked, and bearing a flag that would one-day be occupied by Lord Hanuman.
One day accidentally, Arjuna violated the privacy of Yudhishtira and Draupadi. For which, Arjuna was given the punishment to set off for Tirth Yatra. It was there where Arjuna married the princess of powerful kingdoms and thus, indirectly expanding the Pandavas army for a war to come. Arjuna famous elope with Subhadra was one of the main turning point of Mahabharata where the Yadavas and Pandavas officially tied up. Also, during the exile, Arjuna worshipped Lord Shiva to obtain the Pashupatastra and many different weapons from his father Indra.
While highlighting some of the key turning point during the war too, Arjuna was responsible for most of them. Such as, the fall of Bhishma, which was one of the most important turning point of battle killing of the Trigartas, which failed the plan of Drona to capture Yudhishtira death of Jayadratha and most important of all was death of Karna the biggest capable rival of Arjuna and the last barrier in victory. Also, the famous Virat Yudh where Arjuna single handedly defeated the entire Kuru Army to save the city from siege tells you about his supremacy over all others.
Above all, he was accompanied by Lord Krishna. He was the only one on the battle field to see that divine Virat Roop of Lord Krishna. Arjuna was a great leader as well as he represented the entire humanity in his famous conversation to Lord Krishna in Bhagvad Gita.
Clearly, Arjuna was at the centre of number of important events of Mahabharata that shaped the story entirely. Definitely, Bhima was a great warrior and was responsible for killing hundreds of Kaurava brothers along with the most important rival, Duryodhan. However, it is Arjuna, a character who outshined everyone else with his, dedication, devotion perfection and skills. Nevertheless, it was evident for him to shine, as the Lord himself was by his side!
What scriptures describe the origin of Arjuna's monkey flag?
In the Mahabharata, Arjuna is frequently described as Kadipdhvaja, or the one who has a monkey flag. In the popular imagination, this flag is associated with Hanuman. And this association does have a scriptural basis in Bhima's encounter with Hanuman, which I discuss in my answer here, Hanuman tells him that during the battle of Kurukshetra he will emit shouts from the flag of Arjuna's chariot to intimidate the Kauravas. See this chapter of the Vana Parva of the Mahabharata:
From fraternal feeling and affection, I will do good unto thee, by diving into the army of thy foes copiously furnished with arrows and javelins. And, O highly powerful one, O hero, when thou shall give leonine roars, then shall I with my own, add force to shouts. Remaining on the flagstaff of Arjuna's car will I emit fierce shouts that will damp the energy of thy foes. Thereby ye will slay them easily.
But my question is, what is the origin of Arjuna's monkey flag? Was it always a flag associated with Hanuman, or did Hanuman just enter it during the Mahabharata war?
The story I've always heard about the monkey flag is the one told in the Bengali Mahabharata and in this excerpt from the Amar Chitra Katha comic book "Tales of Arjuna". Arjuna once goes on a pilgrimage to Rameshwaram, at the southern tip of India, and sees Rama's bridge. He boasts that if he were Rama, he wouldn't need the help of the Vanaras in building a bridge, he could make a sturdy bridge to Lanka with his arrows. Now Hanuman happens to be in the area, so he takes the form of a small monkey and makes a wager with Arjuna that if Arjuna builds a bridge of arrows, he wil be able to break it. The conditions are that if Arjuna wins then the monkey becomes his slave, and if the monkey wins then Arjuna has to commit suicide. In any case, Arjuna builds a bridge of arrows, but then the monkey just touches it and it breaks. Arjuna is devastated, and is about to jump into a funeral pyre when a Brahmana boy comes there and suggests that Arjuna and the monkey have a rematch, with the boy being the judge. They agree, and Arjuna makes another bridge. This time Hanuman is not able to break it, even when he becomes gigantic. It is at that moment that Hanuman realizes that the boy is nothing but his beloved Rama, and Arjuna realizes the boy is his beloved Krishna. In any case, Krishna resolves the dispute by telling Hanuman to appear on the flag of Arjuna's chariot, to fulfill the conditions of the bet.
But I'm not aware of any scriptures that describe this story. And also, as I discuss in this question, Arjuna received his chariot from Varuna the ocean god, who got it from Chandra the moon god. And when he got it, it already had the monkey flag see this chapter of the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata:
The smoke-bannered celestial [Agni] welcoming with reverence [Varuna] the ruler of the waters, that fourth of the Lokapalas, said unto that eternal god of gods, "Give me without loss of time that bow and quiver, and that ape-bannered car also, which were obtained from king Soma." . Varuna also gave two inexhaustible quivers, and he also gave a car furnished with celestial weapons and whose banner bore a large ape. It had been made by Viswakarman, the architect of the universe and one of the lords of creation, after severe ascetic meditation. Its splendour, like that of the sun, was so great that no one could gaze at it. It was the very car from which the lord Soma had vanquished the Danavas. Resplendent with beauty, it looked like an evening cloud reflecting the effulgence of the setting sun. It was furnished with an excellent flag-staff of golden colour and great beauty. And there sat upon that flag-staff a celestial ape of form fierce like that of a lion or a tiger. Stationed on high, the ape seemed bent upon burning everything it beheld.
So did the chariot have the monkey flag from the time it was made by Vishwakarma and used by Chandra, and if so who does it depict? Was it always meant to depict Hanuman, or does it depict some other "celestial ape" and did Hanuman just enter into the flag during the Mahabharata war? It could depict Vrishakapi, an ape described in the Vedas who was a ally of Indra but also had an affair with Indra's wife Shachi.
In any case, does anyone know any scriptures which describe either Arjuna's encounter with Hanuman or some other origin of Arjuna's monkey flag?
EDIT: The user sv. just pointed me to this chapter of the Virata Parva of the Mahabharata, where Dronacharya recognizes Arjuna while the latter is dressed like a woman. Here's what Dronacharya says:
O offspring of the Ganges, apparelled as a woman, this is Kiriti called after a tree, the son of the enemy of the mountains, and having on his banner the sign of devastator of the gardens of Lanka's lord.
Now the translator claims this verse does not appear in all manuscripts, but assuming it's authentic it's further evidence that Arjuna's monkey flag was always associated with Hanuman, who is the one who burned the gardens of Ravana. But on the other hand, it makes it all the more strange that the flag was already on the chariot when Varuna gave it to Arjuna.
Archaeological Excavations prove veracity of Mahabharata War around 3100 BCE
Kurukshetra is the place where the epic Mahabharata war fought for 18 days, more than 5000 years ago.
Bhagavadgeetha describes Kurukshetra as ‘Dharmakshetra‘ – a place where ‘Dharma‘ is restored.
The location of the battle was Kurukshetra in the modern state of Haryana in India.
The battle was fought for throne of Hastinapur, which is now located between Meerut and Mawana in uttar Pradesh and is now a forgotten village, but excavations in 1952, revealed the existence of vidurka – tilla (vidura’s palace), Draupadi – ki – rasoi (Draupadi’s Kitchen) and Draupadi Ghat, along with copper utensils, iron seals, Ornaments made of gold and silver, terracotta discs and several oblong shaped ivory dice used in the game of chauper (ancient game in which Duryodhana, with help of his maternal uncle Sakuni, defeated Yudhishtir and sent his brothers along with Draupadi to forest exile for 13 years).
Hastinapur’s Sankrit name suggests that it embodies the might of elephants (Hasti = Elephant).
Hastinapur is styled around the elephant motif, a fortified, heavy ominous dark stoned capital.
In archaeological excavations around hastinapur, about 135 iron objects which included arrow and spearheads, shafts, tongs, hooks, axes, and knives were found, which indicate the existence of a vigorous iron industry.
There are indications of brick – lined roads and drainage systems, and an agro – livestock based economy. The painted grey ware (PGW) of Hastinapura has been assigned to 2800 BCE and beyond.
Based on astronomy of Saptarishi Mandal (they align in same nakshatra/constellation every 100 years), kurukshetra war dates back to 3138 BCE.
Ancient Indian Almanacs (Panchangs) have been mentioning Salivahana Saka and Vikramarka Saka(calendar) and also mention the year Jaya Nama Samvatsara (2014-15) as Kaliyuga’s 5116.
So, its been 5115 years since the death of Lord Krishna and if we subtract 2014 from it, its 3101 BCE when Krishna left this planet and 36 years prior to that, Kurukshetra war was fought.
These calculations are based on mentionings in Mahabharata.
Krishna was 90 years old during war time and his life ended at the age of 126 years.
Yudhishtir and Bheema were elder than Krishna, Arjuna was of same age, Nakul and Sahadev were younger.
This is mentioned in a scene where Pandavas are about to leave for forest exile, Krishna bows to Elder two brothers, hugs middle brother Arjuna and blesses the younger two.
According to the Matsya and vayu puranas a heavy flood on the river Ganga destroyed Hastinapur and Nichakshu, the fifth king after parikshit (Arjuna’s grand son) who ascended the throne after kurukshetra war, shifted his capital to kausambi, 50 kilomters from prayagraj.
Evidence of devastation by the Ganga is still visible in the thick clay soil.
Excavations in Kurukshetra, now in Haryana, yielded iron arrow and spearheads dated by Thermoluminence Test to 3100 BCE.
Sage Veda Vyas also mentions in Mahabharata about usage of atomic weapons from both sides killing millions of soldiers and kings within 18 days.
Present excavations at kurukshetra find that the stones at that place were exposed to radioactive energy thousands of years ago.
The site of drowned Dwaraka near Gujarat’s seashore (at present Dwaraka) also has artifacts dating back to 4000-5000 years old.
Arjuna During the Battle of Kurukshetra - History
We’ve arrived, Aneesh. Running diagnostics now. Transmission seems intact. Thank you, Priya. Okay! We’re live! Readings show a flawless transmission connection! And you all know what that means! I’ll be able to transmit to you everything. Looks like we’ve just arrived at our third destination. As Priya runs diagnostics, I’m going to slum it a little and take a look out of the window! Oh look! Priya, darling, the levitation is working perfectly, but it seems that the invisibility effect has run out. Would you do something about that?
My apologies, Aneesh. I will begin a disillusionment operation immediately.
Ah! Perfect. It looks exactly as I imagined it! Everyone, we’ve made it to the battlefield of Kurukshetra where one of the most amazing battles in all of Indian history is about to take place.
Aneesh. Disillusionment operations are successful. We currently have taken the shape of a cloud.
Perfection! Priya, you are nothing short of a miracle.
Well, you designed me, Aneesh, so of course.
Diagnostic scans are also complete. Shall we go over the results?
Why yes, of course, dear. Hit me!
Heat signature readings are showing three separate entities. One has 1,530,900 hits.
Aha! That would be the Pandavas' side. The army consists of seven Akshauhinis.
The second one is even larger. It’s showing 2,405,700 hits.
Yup! That’s the Kauravas side. Their army has eleven Akshauhinis.
The third is rather small. There are only two hits. And it’s directly in between the other two, and directly below us.
Perfect, Priya! That is Lord Krishna and Arjuna in the center of the battlefield. We’ve arrived, folks, at the point in time right before the battle at Kurukshetra begins. Here, Arjuna has asked Lord Krishna, his charioteer, to take him to the middle of the battlefield. As he surveys the enemy army, he sees relatives, teachers, respected elders. He is faced with a dilemma. How can he kill these people? He respects them so much. He does not want to raise his bow against his family. It is at this moment that Lord Krishna reveals his celestial self to Arjuna and tells him of his Dharma. This is what we want to witness. Part of the conversation between Lord Krishna and Arjuna is what we’re here for.
So, again we’re going to be hearing a conversation. You will receive the feed in a dialogue form with the speaker’s name before a colon and the normal print words following will be the words they are saying. Everything in italics will be Priya describing the scene for you. Good? Are we ready? Perfect. Let’s get started.
Transmission frequency stabilized.
Translation scope: Sanskrit to English
User input: Aneesh Shukla
Context: Here, Arjuna has come to the middle of the battlefield of Kurukshetra and is in a dilemma about whether or not to fight. Lord Krishna is going to tell him (or remind him) of his Dharma.
The sun is high in the sky. The day is silent. The wind rustles through the dirt on the ground and the trees in the distance. Two huge armies occupy the battlefield. In the center, one chariot stands steadfast. Unmoving. The white horses pat the ground, unnerved at the sight of the huge number of soldiers before them. Lord Krishna sits in front of Arjuna, the prince, who sits with his head in his hands. He looks up at the Kauravas. He sees Drona and Bhishma. A tear falls from his eye, down his cheek, and hits the ground below him. Then, he speaks.
Arjuna: Oh great Krishna! How can I fight here? What am I to do? I can’t raise my arms against these great men!
Arjuna: Look! There sits Drona, the great sage and warrior who taught me everything I know! My respect for him is too great!
Arjuna: And look! There is Bhishma. He is like a grandfather to me. His love and wisdom lay within my own heart and mind. How can I fight him?
Arjuna: This is too much. I can’t do this. I am going to tell brother Yudhisthira that I am too weak to fight in this war.
Krishna: Arjuna! If you don’t fight in this war, your brothers will all die and the Kauravas will win.
Arjuna: You don’t know that! How could you know that?
Here, Lord Krishna reveals his celestial form to Arjuna. Our instruments and technology are not able to function during this time. So, we shall move a bit forward in time to when Lord Krishna has returned to his human form so that we can continue transmission. Only a moment, please.
Arjuna: Okay, so you’re able to know everything for good reason. My respect for you has been much less than it should have been. I’m sorry.
Krishna: There is no need for that. But do you understand why you need to do this?
Arjuna: Well, why can’t you just end it! You have the power to do that in one fell swoop.
Krishna: That’s not the point.
Arjuna: Well then, what is the point?
Krishna: The point is that you need to follow your Dharma. Your duty. Your path of righteousness. This war will go down in history as the war between Dharma and Adharma. Right and wrong. Good and evil. Forward progress and negative energy. Who are you?
Arjuna: I am Arjuna, son of Pandu.
Krishna: That is your name, Arjuna. Who are you, really?
Krishna: You are a warrior. You are a prince. You are a soldier in the army of Dharma! Your duty is to take up arms to destroy those who wish to cast a negative eye on truth and righteousness. Don’t you see? You are here because you must fight that! You aren’t fighting your family and relatives. You are fighting injustice. You are fighting wrong.
Arjuna: So I must fight for Dharma?
Krishna: Yes, my son. And for me.
(Arjuna and Lord Krishna in the middle of the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Source: Wikipedia)
Author’s Note: Okay, so here I wanted to show a few things. First, I wanted to explain the sizes of the two armies. The Pandavas were intensely outnumbered. The size of the Kauravas’ army is unreal. Does this have anything to do with Arjuna’s restraint? Probably not. He is the greatest warrior on the battlefield (Karna was a close second, of course). He’s not afraid of the number of soldiers on the other side.
He is, however, afraid of something else. Failure. He does not want to fail in his duty as a grandson or a student. How can he go up against Bhishma or Drona? They’ve taught him so much. He respects them a great deal. He can’t possibly fight or even kill his own kin.
And so then, Krishna reveals his Dharma to him. He tells him that years from that point, the war will be remembered as a war between right and wrong. He tells Arjuna that he needs to fight for all that is right and good in the world. He needs to vanquish evil. And if he must kill his relatives and his teacher to do so, so be it.
The death of Arjuna – at the hands of Babhruvahana
Long after the battle of Kurukshetra, Yudhishtira decides to conduct the Aswamedha Yaga. The yaga horse enters the dominion of Manipur, where Arjuna challenges their King Babruvahana for a fight. Babruvahana kills his father in the ensuing battle. (Mbh 14.80)
However Arjuna’s snake-wife Ulupi resuscitates him to life by using the magical mritasanjivani gem owned bythe Nagas.
Babruvahana with the horse vs Arjuna (Source: circa 1850)
Arjuna’s death in the battle is also attributed to the curse of the Ashta-Vasus. The Vasus, enraged by Arjuna’s deceptive tactic of using Shikandi as a shield to kill Bhishma (an incarnation of one of the eight Vasus), curse Arjuna that he would be slain by his own son. This curse comes to pass during the battle between Arjuna and Babruvahana.
In the Jaimini-Bharata, a version of the Mahabharata attributed to Vyasa’s disciple Jaimini, Babhruvahana, upon Ulupi’s advise wages a war against the snakes in Nagaloka by leading an army of mongooses. He then successfully claims the elixir which is used to revive Arjuna to life. The Jaimini-Bharata is popular for its rich and colourful treatment of the Aswamedika Parva.
12 Warriors who survived Kurukshetra war in Mahabharata are:
This is the most obvious answer. Krishna is the supreme god himself. He fought in the war as the charioteer of Arjuna. He constantly guides Arjuna during the Kurukshetra war.
Krishna preaches “BHAGAVAD GITA” to Arjuna when he refused to fight against his own family members (Kauravas). Arjun is directed by Krishna to follow his Kshatriya (warrior) duty to fight and establish Dharma.
One of the most famous shlokas of Srimad Bhagavad Gita is:
यदा यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिर्भवति भारत ।
अभ्युत्थानमधर्मस्य तदात्मानं सृजाम्यहम् ॥४-७॥
परित्राणाय साधूनां विनाशाय च दुष्कृताम् ।
धर्मसंस्थापनार्थाय सम्भवामि युगे युगे ॥४-८॥
All the five Pandavas namely Arjuna, Bhima, Yudhishthira, Nakula and Sahadeva survived the war.
Among Pandavas, Arjuna, Bhima, Yudhishthira are the sons of Kunti and Pandu. While Nakula and Sahadeva are the sons of Madri and Pandu. (Pandu has two wives, Kunti and Madri)
Yuyutsu is the only son of Dhritarashtra who survived the war. He is the son of Dhritarashtra with Sughada/Sauvali, Gandhari’s maid.
Yuyutsu is born at the same time as other Kauravas. So he is of the same age of other Kaurava. He is one of the warriors who survived Kurukshetra war.
He is also famous (well not so famous) because he chooses the path of virtue. Apart from being a Kaurava, he fought on the side of the Pandavas. He is the only Kaurava who fought for Pandavas.
After ruling Hastinapur for over 36 years, Pandavas decide to renounce the world and begin their journey toward Swarga (heaven). They made Yuyutsu supervisor (निरीक्षक) of the kingdom.
Satyaki belongs to the Vrishi clan of Yadavas, to which Krishna also belongs. He considers himself as the student of Arjuna and was devoted to Krishna.
He also fought on the side of the Pandavas, apart from the fact that Yadava army is promised to Kauravas by Krishna.
Kritavarma is one of the two important warriors of Yadava clan. While Satyaki joined Pandavas, Kritavarma joined Kauravas and led the Yadava army.
He also helps Ashwathama in accidentally killing five sons of Draupadi (one with each Pandava) along with Dhristadyumna and Shikhandi.
Ashwathama or Ashwatthama is the son of Dronacharya and Kripi (sister of Kripacharya). He along with his father fought on the side of Kauravas.
Since he was born Chiranjivi, it is virtually impossible for anyone to kill or defeat him. That’s why he survived Kurukshetra war.
It is believed that he is still roaming on earth in and around the Narmada river in India.
Kripacharya is the teacher of both of Pandavas and Kauravas. His sister is married to Drona (or Dronacharya). He is also one of the eight Chiranjivi(s) just like Ashwatthama.
He is one of the only three Kauravas including Ashwatthama & Vrishaketu who survived the war.
Vrishaketu or Vrishakethu is one of the nine sons of Karna. He is the only son of Karna who survived the war. He fought on the side of Kauravas.
Later on, Arjuna gets to know that Karna is his real elder brother and he killed him. He feels guilty for his actions.
Thus, he took Vrishakethu under his protection. Vrishaketu grew close to the Pandavas after the war.
He took part in many battles after the war. Later during the Ashvamedha yagna, Arjuna’s son Babruvahana killed him.