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Bagley II DD- 185 - History

Bagley II DD- 185 - History

Bagley II

(DD-185 dp. 1213, 1. .314’5”,, b.31’8”dr. 9'4", s. 34
k.; cpl. 122; a. 4 4". 2 3". 12 21" TT.; cl. Lamberton )

The second Bagley(DD-185) was launched 19 October 1918 by Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Newport News, Va.; sponsored by Mrs. Adelaide Worth Hagley, mother of Ensign Bagley, commissioned 27 August 1919, Commander R. L. Walker in command, and reported to the Atlantic Fleet.

Between August 1919 and July 1920 Bagley served in destroyer Flotillas 1, 3, and 8 participating in maneuvers and training in the Atlantic and Caribbean. She was placed in reserve commission 16 July 1920 and out of commission at Philadelphia 12 July 1922. During 25 April 1932-20 April 1934 she was on loan to the Coast Guard.

The name Bagley was dropped 31 May 1935 and, until 1939, she was referred to as DD-185 (ex-Bagley). Renamed Doran 22 December 1939, she was recommissioned 17 June 1940 and reported to the Atlantic Squadron. She served with the Squadron until 22S September 1940, when she was decommissioned at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and transferred in the destroyer-land bases exchange to Great Britain.

She was renamed HMS St.Mary’s and arrived at Belfast, Ireland, 8 October 1940. Assigned to the permanent escort force of the 1st Minelaying Squadron, she arrived on the west coast of Scotland 31 October and took part in some of the early minelaying operations in Denmark Strait, between Iceland and Greenland. She also escorted /a number of convoys. During 1941 she took part in most of the Squadron's minelaying operations and rendered valuable service in the defense of shipping. On 29 August 1941 she was in a collision with the transport Royal Ulsterman off the west coast of Scotland and was in the dockyard until December.

St. Mary’s carried out minelaying and shipping defense duties in 1942 and 1943. In February 1944 she was paid off in the Tyne and remained there until the end of the war.


Battle of Savo Island

The Battle of Savo Island, also known as the First Battle of Savo Island and, in Japanese sources, as the First Battle of the Solomon Sea ( 第一次ソロモン海戦 , Dai-ichi-ji Soromon Kaisen) , and colloquially among Allied Guadalcanal veterans as the Battle of the Five Sitting Ducks, [4] [5] was a naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and Allied naval forces. The battle took place on August 8–9, 1942, and was the first major naval engagement of the Guadalcanal campaign, and the first of several naval battles in the straits later named Ironbottom Sound, near the island of Guadalcanal.

The Imperial Japanese Navy, in response to Allied amphibious landings in the eastern Solomon Islands, mobilized a task force of seven cruisers and one destroyer under the command of Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa. The task forces sailed from Japanese bases in New Britain and New Ireland down New Georgia Sound (also known as "the Slot"), with the intention of interrupting the Allied landings by attacking the supporting amphibious fleet and its screening force. The Allied screen consisted of eight cruisers and fifteen destroyers under Rear Admiral Victor Crutchley, but only five cruisers and seven destroyers were involved in the battle. In a night action, Mikawa thoroughly surprised and routed the Allied force, sinking one Australian and three American cruisers, while suffering only light damage in return. The battle has often been cited as the worst defeat in the history of the United States Navy. [6] Rear Admiral Samuel J. Cox, director of the Naval History and Heritage Command, considers this battle and the Battle of Tassafaronga to be two of the worst defeats in U.S. naval history, second only to Pearl Harbor. [7] [8]

After the initial engagement, Mikawa, fearing Allied carrier strikes against his fleet in daylight, decided to withdraw under cover of night rather than attempt to locate and destroy the Allied invasion transports. The Japanese attacks prompted the remaining Allied warships and the amphibious force to withdraw earlier than planned (before unloading all supplies), temporarily ceding control of the seas around Guadalcanal to the Japanese. This early withdrawal of the fleet left the Allied ground forces (primarily United States Marines), which had landed on Guadalcanal and nearby islands only two days before, in a precarious situation, with limited supplies, equipment, and food to hold their beachhead.

Mikawa's decision to withdraw under cover of night rather than attempt to destroy the Allied invasion transports was primarily founded on concern over possible Allied carrier strikes against his fleet in daylight. In reality, the Allied carrier fleet, similarly fearing Japanese attack, had already withdrawn beyond operational range. This missed opportunity to cripple (rather than interrupt) the supply of Allied forces on Guadalcanal contributed to Japan's failure to recapture the island. At this critical early stage of the campaign, it allowed the Allied forces to entrench and fortify themselves sufficiently to defend the area around Henderson Field until additional Allied reinforcements arrived later in the year. [9]

The battle was the first of five costly, large-scale sea and air-sea actions fought in support of the ground battles on Guadalcanal itself, as the Japanese sought to counter the American offensive in the Pacific. These sea battles took place after increasing delays by each side to regroup and refit, until the November 30, 1942 Battle of Tassafaronga (sometimes referred to as the Fourth Battle of Savo Island or, in Japanese sources, as the Battle of Lunga Point ( ルンガ沖夜戦 ) ) – after which the Japanese, eschewing the costly losses, attempted resupplying by submarine and barges. The final naval battle, the Battle of Rennell Island (Japanese: レンネル島沖海戦), took place months later on January 29–30, 1943, by which time the Japanese were preparing to evacuate their remaining land forces and withdraw.


Bagley II DD- 185 - History

Auxiliary General Environmental Research (AGER)
USS Pueblo AGER-2 (FP-344, FS-344, AKL-44) captured January 23, 1968 dipslayed North Korea

Hospital Ship (AH)
USS Comfort (AH-6) scrapped 1967
USS Hope (AH-7) scrapped 1978
USS Mercy (AH-8) scrapped 1970

Floating Dry Docks (ABSD)
USS ABSD-2 Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock 2 (AFDB-2) stricken March 24, 1987 disassembled into sections 1990
USS ABSD-4 Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock 4 (AFDB-4) stricken April 15, 1989 partially sunk in Seealder Harbor

Fleet Oiler (AO)
USS Kanawha (AO-1) sunk April 7, 1943
USS Neosho (AO-23) scuttled May 11, 1942
USS Sangamon (AO-28) converted to aircraft carrier AVG-26 (later CVE-26) February 1942
USS Guadalupe (AO-32) scrapped 1975
USS Mississinewa (AO-59) sunk November 20, 1944

Attack Transport (APA)
USS McCawley APA-4 (AP-10) sunk June 30, 1943
USS Libra (AKA-12) sold for scrap April 17, 1985
USS John Penn APA-23 (AP-51) sunk August 13, 1944
USS Elmore APA-42 scrapped circa April 1971

Minelayer (CM)
USS Ogala (ID-1255 / CM-4 / ARG-1) sunk December 7, 1941 refloated and repaired scrapped 1955

Auk-class Minesweeper (AM)
USS Starling (AM-64) transfered Mexico ARM Valentín Gómez Farías (C79/G11/P110)
USS Herald (AM-101) transfered Mexico ARM Mariano Matamoros (G17)
USS Pilot (AM-104) transfered Mexico ARM Juan Aldama (C85/G18/P116)
USS Pioneer (AM-105 / MSF-105) transfered Mexico ARM Leandro Valle (C70 / G01 / P101)
USS Sage (AM-111) transfered Mexico ARM Hermenegildo Galeana (C86/G19/P117)
USS Sway (AM-120) transfered Mexico ARM Ignacio Altamirano (C80/G12/P111) at Guaymas, Mexico
USS Symbol (AM-123) transfered Mexico ARM Guillermo Prieto (C71/G02/P102)
USS Threat (AM-124) transfered Mexico ARM Francisco Zarco (C81/G13/P112)
USS Velocity (AM-128 / MSF-128) transfered Mexico ARM Ignacio L. Vallarta (C82 / G14 / P113)
USS Champion (AM-314 / MSF-314) transfered Mexico to ARM Mariano Escobedo (C72 / G03 / P103)
USS Chief (AM-315 / MSF-315) transfered Mexico ARM Jesús González Ortega (C83)
USS Competent (AM-316) transfered Mexico ARM Ponciano Arriaga (G04)
USS Defense (AM-317) transfered Mexico ARM Manuel Doblado (C73)
USS Devastator (AM-318) transfered Mexico ARM Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (C74/G06/P105)
USS Gladiator (AM-319) transfered Mexico ARM Santos Degollado (C75/G07/P106) at Guaymas, Mexico
USS Spear (AM-322) transfered Mexico ARM Ignacio de la Llave (C76/G08/P107)
USS Roselle (AM-379/MSF-379) to Mexico ARM Melchor Ocampo (C78) / Melchor Ocampo (G10) / Manuel Gutiérrez Zamora (P109)
USS Scoter (AM-381) transfered Mexico ARM Gutiérrez Zamora (C84) / ARM Melchor Ocampo G16 / Felipe Xicoténcatl (P115)
USS Scoter (AM-381) transfered Mexico ARM Gutiérrez Zamora (C84/G16/P115)

Admirable-class Minesweeper (AM)
USS Hazard (AM-240/MSF-240) displayed at Freedom Park in Omaha, Nebraska
USS Inaugural (AM-242/MSF-242) sunk 1993 Mississippi River
USS Knave (AM-256/MSF-256) to Mexico ARM DM-13 / ARM Cadete Juan Escutia C56 sunk October 2000 off Puerto Morelos
USS Project (AM-278) to Philippines RPS Sama M-33 stricken 1960
USS Ransom (AM-283/MSF-283) ARM DM-12 / ARM Teniente Juan de la Barrera C55 sunk October 2000 off Cozumel
USS Scrimmage (AM-297) MV Giant II / MS Mahi sunk February 1982 off Oahu
USS Scuffle (AM-298) to Mexico ARM DM-05 / ARM General Felipe Xicoténcatl C53 sunk June 2000 off Cozumel
USS Harlequin (AM-365/MSF-365) to Mexico RM DM-20/Oceanográfico/General Pedro María Anaya/Aldabaran sunk May 2000

Auxiliary Motor Minesweeper (YMS)
YMS-51 sunk April 29, 1945
YMS-329 sunk April 28, 1945
YMS-363 sunk May 1, 1945
YMS-364 sunk May 1, 1945
YMS-481 sunk May 1, 1945

Repair Ship (AR)
USS Medusa (AR-1)
USS Vestal (AR-4) sold for scrap July 28, 1950
USS Ortolan (ASR-5) sold August 20, 1947 ultimate fate unknown
USS Chanticleer (ARS-7) sold for scrap June 1, 1974
USS Sperry (AS-12) sold for scrap 2011
USS Laertes (AR-20)

Submarine Tender (AS)
USS Holland (AS-3)
USS Fulton (AS-11)

Fleet Tug (AT)
USS Conestoga AT-54 / SP-1128 sunk March 21, 1921 discovered 2009, identified 2016
USS Seminole (AT-65) sunk October 25, 1942
USS Cocopa (ATF-101, ARM Seri, RE-03) still in use as of 2009
USS Rail (AT-139)

Harbor Tug (YT)
USS Sotoyomo (YT-9) December 7, 1941 sunk but later raised and repaired

Battleship (BB)
USS Utah BB-31 / AG-16 sunk December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor
USS New York BB-34 sunk July 8, 1948
USS Texas BB-35 displayed at the Battleship Texas State Historic Site in LaPorte, TX
USS Nevada BB-36 sunk July 31, 1948
USS Oklahoma BB-37 sunk December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor
USS Arizona BB-39 sunk December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor
USS New Mexico (BB-40) scrapped 1947
USS Mississippi BB-41 sold for scrap November 28, 1956
USS California BB-44 sold for scrap July 10 1959
USS Colorado BB-45 scrapped July 23, 1959
USS Maryland BB-46 scrapped July 8, 1959
USS West Virginia BB-48 sold for scrap August 24, 1959
USS North Carolina BB-55 displayed Wilmington, NC
USS South Dakota BB-57 sold for scrap October 25, 1962
USS Indiana BB-58 sold for scrap September 6, 1963
USS Massachusetts BB-59 displayed at Battleship Cove
USS Alabama BB-60 displayed at Mobile, AL
USS Iowa BB-61 display as USS Iowa Museum at Pacific Battleship Center in the Port of Los Angeles
USS New Jersey BB-62 displayed at Camden, NJ
USS Missouri BB-63 displayed at Pearl Harbor, HI
USS Wisconsin BB-64 displayed at the Battleship Museum USS Wisconsin in Norfolk, Virginia

Cruiser / Armored Crusier / Protected Cruiser
USS Baltimore (C-3, CM-1) scuttled Sept 22, 1944 discovered September 2017 by Okeanos Explorer in the Musicians Seamounts
USS Rochester (CA-2 USS New York ACR-2, USS Saratoga ACR-2) scuttled December 1941
USS Olympia (CA-6 CA-15, CL-15, IX-40) displayed Philadelphia, PA

Heavy Cruiser (CA)
USS Pensacola (CA-24) sunk November 10, 1948
USS Salt Lake City (CA-25)
USS Northampton (CL-26 / CA-26) sunk December 1, 1942
USS Chester CA-27 scrapped 1959
USS Louisville (CA-28, CL-28) scrapped 1959
USS Chicago (CA-29, CL-29) sunk January 30, 1943 Battle Of Rennell Island
USS Houston (CA-30) sunk February 28, 1942
USS Augusta (CA-31) scrapped 1960
USS New Orleans (CA-32) scrapped 1959
USS Portland (CA-33) scrapped 1959
USS Astoria (CA-34) sunk August 9, 1942
USS Indianapolis (CA-35) sunk July 30, 1945
USS Minneapolis (CA-36) scrapped July 1960
USS San Francisco (CA-38) scrapped May 1961
USS Quincy (CA-39) sunk August 9, 1942
USS Baltimore (CA-68) scrapped 1972
USS Canberra (CA-70, CAG-2) scrapped 1980

Escort Carrier (CVE)
USS Long Island CVE-1 scrapped 1977
USS Copahee CVE-12 scrapped 1961
USS Nassau CVE-16 scrapped 1961
USS Barnes CVE-20 scrapped 1959
USS Block Island CVE-21 sunk by three torpedoes from U-549
USS Breton CVE-23 scrapped 1972
USS Sangamon CVE-26 converted from oiler AO-28 during February 1942
USS Suwannee CVE-27 scrapped June 1962
USS Baffins CVE-35 (AVG-35, ACV-35, HMS Ameer)
USS Liscome Bay CVE-56 sunk November 24, 1943 *
USS Manila Bay CVE-61 scrapped 1959
USS Natoma Bay (CVE–62)
USS St. Lo CVE-63 (AVG-63, ACV-63) sunk October 25, 1944 by kamikaze attack
USS Kalinin Bay CVE-68 scrapped 1946
USS Kadashan Bay (CVE-76)
USS Ommaney Bay CVE-79 sunk January 4, 1945
USS Sargent Bay (CVE-83) scrapped 1959
USS Gambier Bay CVE-93 sunk October 25, 1944 *
USS Kwajalein CVE-98 scrapped 1961
USS Block Island (CVE-106) scrapped 1960
USS Gilbert Islands CVE-107 scrapped 1979

Light Aircraft Carrier (CVL)
USS Independence CVL-22 (CV-22) scuttled 1951
USS Princeton CVL-23 sunk October 24, 1944 *
USS Belleau Wood CVL-24 transfered to the French Navy then returned 1960, scrapped 1960
USS Cowpens CVL-25 (CV-25, AVT-1) scrapped 1960
USS Monterey CVL-26 (CV-26) scrapped May 1971
USS Langley CVL-27 scrapped 1964
USS Cabot CVL-28 scrapped 2002
USS Bataan CVL-29 scrapped 1961
USS San Jacinto CV-30 (CVL-30) scrapped 1971

Destroyer (DD), Destroyer Escort (DE), Destroyer Minesweeper (DMS), High-Speed Transport (APD) and Auxiliary Seaplane Tender (AVD)
USS Manley DD-74
USS Rathburne DD-113 (APD-25) sold for scrap November 1946
USS Little DD-79 (APD-4) sunk September 5, 1942
USS Gregory DD-82 (APD-3) sunk September 5, 1942
USS McKean DD-90
USS Talbot DD-114 (APD-7) scrapped January 30, 1946
USS Gamble DD-123 (DM-15) scuttled July 16, 1945 outside Apra Harbor off Guam
USS Ward (No. 139, DD-139, APD-16) sunk December 7, 1944 Battle of Ormoc Bay
USS Elliot (DD-146)
USS Crosby (No. 164, DD-164, APD-17
USS Liddle DE-206 / APD-60 sold for scrap 1967
USS Southard (DD-207 / DMS-10)
USS Kephart DE-207 (APD-61, Kyong Puk PF-82)
USS Hovey DD-208 (DMS-11)
USS Long DD-209 sunk January 6, 1945 by kamikaze
USS Barker (DD-213) scrapped November 30, 1945
USS John D. Edwards (DD-216) scrapped November 30, 1945
USS Parrott (DD-218) scrapped April 5, 1947
USS Edsall (DD-219) sunk March 1, 1942
USS Bulmer (DD-222) scrapped February 19, 1947
USS Stewart (DD-224) scuttled March 2, 1942 repaired by the Japanese as Patrol Boat No. 102
USS Pope DD-225 sunk March 1, 1942 *
USS Peary DD-226 sunk February 19, 1942
USS Pillsbury DD-227 sunk March 2, 1942 by Japanese cruisers Atago and Takao
USS Ballard DD-267 (AVD-10)
USS Dale DD-290 (SS Masaya) sunk March 28, 1943
USS Osborne DD-295 (SS Matagalpa) burned June 26, 1942, scuttled September 6, 1947
USS Zane DD-337 (DMS-14/AG-109) scrapped 1947
USS Trever DD-339 (DMS-16/AG-110) scrapped 1946
USS Perry DD-340 (DMS-17) sunk September 14, 1944 *
USS William B. Preston DD-344 (AVP-20 / AVD-7) scrapped November 6, 1946
USS Macdonough (DD-351) scrapped 1946
USS Worden (DD-352) grounded January 12, 1943
USS Selfridge DD-357
USS Phelps DD-360 scrapped August 1947
USS Mahan (DD-364) sunk December 7, 1944 during Battle of Ormoc Bay
USS Drayton DD-366 scrapped December 1946
USS Lamson DD-367 sunk July 1, 1946 during test "Able" atomic bomb
USS Reid DD-369
USS Case DD-370
USS Cassin DD-372 December 7, 1941 destroyed, parts salvaged
USS Shaw DD-373 December 7, 1941 heavy damage, scrapped July 1946
USS Downes DD-375 December 7, 1941 destroyed, parts salvaged and recomissioned, scrapped November 18, 1947
USS Cushing DD-376 sunk November 13, 1942 Naval Battle of Guadalcanal
USS Perkins DD-377 sunk November 29, 1942 after collision with MV Duntroon
USS Preston DD-379 sunk November 14, 1942
USS Gridley DD-380
USS Bagley DD-386 scrapped September 8, 1947
USS Blue DD-387 sunk August 22, 1942 *
USS Helm (DD-388) December 7, 191 light damage
USS Mugford DD-389 *
USS Ralph Talbot (DD-390)
USS Henley DD-391 sunk October 3, 1943
USS Jarvis DD-393 sunk August 9, 1942
USS Ellet DD-398
USS McCall DD-400
USS Maury DD-401
USS Edmonds DE-406
USS Sterett DD-407
USS Sims DD-409 sunk May 7, 1942
USS Anderson DD-411
USS Hammann DD-412 sunk June 6, 1942 by I-168 during the Battle of Midway
USS Mustin DD-413 scuttled April 18, 1948 by gunfire off Kwajalein
USS Samuel B. Roberts DE-413 sunk October 25, 1944
USS Walke DD-416 sunk November 15, 1942
USS Gwin DD-433 damaged July 13, 1943 scuttled
USS Monssen DD-436 sunk November 13, 1942
USS Fletcher DD-445 scrapped 1972
USS Radford DD-446
USS Jenkins DD-447
USS Nicholas DD-449
USS O'Bannon DD-450
USS Laffey DD-459 sunk November 13, 1942
USS Woodworth DD-460
USS Saufley DD-465 sunk February 20, 1968
USS Strong DD-467 sunk July 5, 1943
USS De Haven DD-469 sunk February 1, 1943
USS Bache DD-470
USS Bennett DD-473
USS Emmons DD-475 / DMS-22 sunk April 6, 1945
USS Hutchins DD-476
USS Pringle DD-477 sunk April 1, 1945 *
USS Aaron Ward DD-483 sunk April 7, 1943
USS Buchanan DD-484 transfered to Turkey as TCG Gelibolu (D-346) scrapped 1976
USS Duncan DD-485 sunk October 12, 1942
USS Lansdowne DD-486
USS Lardner DD-487
USS McCalla (DD-488)
USS Farenholt DD-491
USS Philip DD-498 (DDE-498) sunk February 2, 1972
USS Renshaw DD-499
USS Conway DD-507 sunk as target June 26, 1970
USS Brownson DD-518 sunk December 26, 1943
USS Daly DD-519
USS Abner Read DD-526
USS Bush DD-529 sunk April 6, 1945
USS Hoel DD-533 *
USS Lewis DE-535
USS John D. Henley DD-553
USS Johnston DD-557 sunk October 25, 1944
USS Prichett DD-561 (Geniere (D 555) transferred to Italy 1970 scrapped 1975
USS Aulick DD-569
USS Burns DD-588
USS Barton DD-599 sunk November 13, 1942
USS Meade DD-602
USS Kalk DD-611 sunk March 1969 as target
USS England DE-635 sold for scrap November 26, 1946
USS Sigourney DD-643 scrapped July 31, 1975
USS Kidd DD-661
USS Gatling (DD-671)
USS Underhill (DE-682) sunk July 24, 1945 by Kaiten
USS Cooper DD-695 sunk December 3, 1944
USS Walke DD-723 scrapped 1975
USS O'Brien (DD-725)
USS Strong (DD-758/DE-758) / Rio Grande do Norte (D-37) sunk 1997 off Durban while under tow from Brazil to India for scrapping
USS Slater DE-766 (Aetos D01) displayed at the Destroyer Escort Historical Museum in Albany, NY
USS Ebert DE-768 sunk July 2002
USS Aaron Ward (DD-773/DM-34) scrapped 1946
USS Henderson DD-785
USS Cassin Young DD-793
USS Colhoun (DD-801) damaged April 6, 1945 by kamikaze aircraft and returned to United States
USS Little DD-803 sunk May 3, 1945 by kamikaze off Okinawa
USS Basilone DD 824 sunk on April 9, 1982
USS Joseph P. Kennedy (DD-850) displayed at Battleship Cove
USS Jesse L. Brown (DE-1089) sold to Egypt Damiyat F961

FP-Type Freight and Cargo (FS)
FS-172 ran aground and sank July 1946 near Cape Croisilles on New Guinea
FS-177 sunk July 17, 1972

Unidentified Landing Craft
Unidentified Landing Craft sunk off Kwajalein
Concrete Barge sunk off Kwajalein

Landing Craft Infantry (LCI) / LCI(L) / LCI(M)
LCI(L)-600 sunk January 12, 1945 by Kaiten with the loss of three crew
USS LCI(M)-807 / USS LCI(G)-807 / USS LCI(L)-807 ultimate fate unknown likely scrapped

Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM)
LCM(3) P-56 displayed at Battleship Cove
LCM(3) sunk off Gavutu Island

Landing Ship Medium (LSM)
USS LSM-201 sold for scrap on November 10, 1946 and scrapped afterwards
USS LSM(R)-195 sunk on May 3, 1945 off Okinawa

Landing Ship Tank (LST)
USS LST-18 landed at Tanahmerah on April 24, 1944
USS LST-169 scrapped circa 1947
USS LST-202
USS LST-245 scrapped circa 1948
USS LST-340 (USS Spark, IX-196) damaged June 16, 1943 repaired
USS LST-342 sunk July 18, 1943, bow beached at Florida Island
USS LST-353
USS LST-396
USS LST-454 scrapped 1947
USS LST-456 (Q043, USNS T-LST-456, MV Karkas, MV Bshair) ultimate fate unknown likely scrapped
USS LST-480 sunk May 20, 1944 due to an ammunition explosion in West Lock
USS LST-577 sunk February 10, 1945 by a torpedo fired by RO-50
USS LST-711 ultimate fate unknown likely scrapped
USS LST-927 scrapped December 9, 1947
USS LST-974 ultimate fate unknown likely scrapped
USS LST-1110 (USS San Bernardion County, RPS Chung Chiang) scrapped 1993

Liberty Ship (EC2-S-C1)
SS John W. Brown docked Baltimore Harbor, Maryland operated by Project Liberty Ship
SS Russell H. Chittenden ran aground March 13, 1945 and wrecked
SS Rufus King ran aground July 7, 1942
SS Jeremiah O'Brien docked at Pier 45 at Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco The National Liberty Ship Memorial, Inc
SS Joseph Stanton scrapped 1964
SS John L. Sullivan (YAG-37) scrapped 1958

Motor Gunboat (PGM)
USS PGM-7 sunk July 18, 1944

Motor Torpedo Boat Tender (PG, AGP)
USS Jamestown PG-55 scrapped December 16, 1946
USS Hilo PG-58 (AGP-2) ultimate fate unknown likely scrapped
USS Oyster Bay (AGP-6, AVP-28) transfered to Itay

Schooner
USS Lanikai sunk 1947 during typhoon

Subchaster (SC)
USS SC-750
USS SC-772

Transport & Ocean Liner (SS, USAT, USS)
SS Masaya (Formerly USS Dale DD-290) sunk March 28, 1943
SS Matagalpa (Formally USS Osborne DD-295) Burned June 26, 1942, scuttled September 6, 1947
USAT Liberty sunk January 11, 1942
SS President Coolidge sunk October 26, 1942 accidental collision with a mine
SS President Grant grounded February 26, 1944
USS President Taylor (Granite State, President Polk) Grounded February 14, 1942
SS Stanvac Manila sunk May 24, 1943

Victory Ship (VC2-S-AP2)
SS American Victory displayed at Tampa, Florida at SS American Victory Ship Mariners Memorial Museum
SS Lane Victory docked San Pedro operated by US Merchant Marine Veterans of WWII
SS Red Oak Victory displayed at the Rosie the Riveter / World War II Home Front National Historical Park

Fuel Barge Non Self-Propelled (YON)
Erskine M. Phelps (YON-147) sunk April 7, 1943 later raised and salvaged

Unclassified Miscellaneous Vessel (IX)
USS Olympia (IX-40) displayed Philadelphia, PA
Etamin IX-173 (USS Etamin AK-93) scrapped 1948
USS Ocelot (IX-110) sold for scrap 1948
USS Armadillo (IX-111)
USS Abarenda (IX-131)
USS Spark (IX-196) formally USS LST-340
IX-522 section D of USS AFBD-2 at NAVSEA Inactive Ships On-Site Maintenance Office at Pearl Harbor.
IX-524 section F of USS AFBD-2 towed to Pacific Missile Range Facility at Kekaha, Hawaii
IX-535 section H of USS AFBD-2 towed to Pacific Missile Range Facility at Kekaha, Hawaii

Yacht (PY)
USS Isabel (PY-10) scrapped March 1946

Bagley II DD- 185 - History

Named for Commodore Daniel Todd Patterson, the second Patterson was built at Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Washington, christened there with Jarvis, and commissioned 22 September 1937.

Operating in the Pacific with flagship Selfridge other ships of her class as Destroyer Squadron 4 before World War II, Patterson was moored at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, shooting down one attacking plane before standing out of the harbor in search of enemy submarines and then screening Saratoga in searching for the enemy.

In the early months of the war, Patterson continued patrolling in the Pacific, escorting convoys and screening Lexington&rsquos Task Force 11 (Rear Adm. Wilson Brown) in an aborted raid on Rabaul, 20 February, and a sortie into the Gulf of Papua for a successful air strike on Lae and Salamaua, New Guinea, 10 March.

In May, after an overhaul, Patterson took part in the Operation Watchtower, the invasion of Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomon Islands, 7 August. Responding, a Japanese cruiser column approached undetected until her CO, Destroyer Division 8 Commander F.R. Walker, raised the alert shortly after 0130, 9 August 1942. Patterson promptly engaged Japanese warships during the Battle of Savo Island, receiving shell hits that killed ten of her crew and damaged her two after five-inch guns.

Patterson remained on escort duty in the Solomon Islands for the duration of the Guadalcanal campaign and the following New Georgia campaign&mdashbombarding Munda, New Georgia, on 25 July 1943, sinking submarine I-178 on 25 August, and covering landings to occupy Vella Lavella in September and attacking barges&mdashuntil she and McCalla were badly damaged in a collision on 29&ndash30 September when the latter lost steering control, killing three and wounding ten. Fitted with a false bow at Espiritu Santo, Patterson left 6 December for repairs at Mare Island.

Patterson returned to the war zone in March 1944, in time to participate in the Battle of the Philippine Sea in June and the Marianas campaign from then into August, followed by the Palaus campaign, raids on Japanese bases in the western Pacific, and the invations of Leyte and Mindoro. In 1945, she took part in the Lingayen operation, the Iwo Jima landings and the long campaign in the Ryukyus. She concluded the war with escort and patrol work in the central and western Pacific.

In late September 1945, Patterson returned to New York and was decommissioned there in November. She was sold for scrapping in August 1947. She earned 13 battle stars in World War II.


Joining the Pacific Fleet in late 1937, Mugford conducted local operations along the West Coast and around the Hawaiian Islands, taking time out for periodic overhauls and upkeep. 7 December 1941 found her at Pearl Harbor. When the attack began, Mugford was on standby status and while raising steam to get underway, she downed three planes in 10 minutes with her antiaircraft guns. Within an hour after the attack began, the &ldquolittle ship&rdquo was steaming out of Pearl Harbor firing as she went. Her next major duty was to screen the Wake Island relief force and after completion of this duty served as an escort for convoys traveling between the United States and Australia. She served in this capacity until mid-1942.

On 7 August Mugford was on patrol off Lunga Point, Guadalcanal, when a large Japanese airstrike came in three near misses and one bomb hit couldn&rsquot prevent Mugford from downing two of her attackers, but she suffered eight killed, 17 wounded and 10 missing. Next day she shot down another enemy aircraft in a raid in which she suffered no damage, and rescued two enemy aviators from the water. On the 9th, she sped toward the action of the first Battle of Savo Island, arriving in time to pull 400 survivors of Vincennes (CA-44) and Astoria (CA-34) from the water.

After battle damage repairs at Sydney, from 18 September through December, she operated on patrol in the Coral Sea and along Australia&rsquos northern coast. Brisbane was her base for continued patrol, as well as escort missions to Milne Bay, New Guinea, which became her base later in the summer as New Guinea operations took on a faster pace. She joined in the assault on Woodlark Island in July, conducted shore bombardment and patrols in that general area in August, and in September escorted LSTs to the invasion of Lae on the 4th, after which she patrolled offshore while under enemy air attack. Later that month she conducted pre-invasion bombardment north of Finschhafen, off which she served until late in October. On 20 October, she and four companion destroyers were attacked by 60 enemy planes Mugford suffered no damage. (continued)


Pianos Edit

In 1900, Yamaha started to manufacture pianos.

Grand pianos Edit

  • FC / CF (1949–67 / 1967–91)
  • CFIII (1983–2000)
  • CFIIIS (1991–)
  • CF4 (2010–
  • CF6 (2010–
  • CFX (2010–)
  • G1 / C1 / C1x (1988–94 / 1994–2012 / 2012–)
    • DC1A
    • G2F / DG2FII

    Note: prefix D means Disklavier suffix S / SG means Silent grand

    • G1, G2, G5, G7 (listed on C series)
    • #25 / G3 (1949–53 / 1954–94)
    • GA1E [1] / DGA1[XG][E] (Polished Ebony finish)
    • GC1
      • GC1S / GC1SG [1] (2002–)
      • GC1G / GC1FP [1] (Georgian Brown mahogany / French Provincial Brown Cherry)
      • GC1M / DGC1 / DGC1ME3
      • A1 (1993–)
        • A1[L][S][SG]
        • DA1IIXG / DA1E3 / DA1M4
        • S4 (1994–)
          • S4BB
          • DS4E3PRO PE
          • S6BB
          • DS6E3PRO PE
          • Z1 (2003–07)
            • Z1B

            Baby grand pianos Edit

            • GB1
              • GB1K / DGB1CD — most compact models (depth: 151 cm or 59 in) on current product line [2]

              Upright pianos Edit

              • B1
              • B2
              • B3
              • C108
              • M460
              • M560
              • P121
              • P660
              • SU118C
              • T118
              • T121
              • U1
              • U10
              • U100
              • U2
              • U3
              • U30
              • U300
              • U5
              • U7
              • UX
              • UX1
              • UX10
              • UX100
              • UX3
              • UX30
              • UX300
              • UX5
              • UX50
              • UX500
              • YU116D/W
              • YUA
              • YUS1
              • YUS3
              • YUS5
              • YUX
              • SU7

              Player pianos Edit

                • Disklavier E3 series
                • DKC-850 (MIDI recorder with PCM sound (AWM2) )
                • EMR1 (MIDI recorder with PCM sound (AWM2:XG/GM) )

                Silent pianos Edit

                • RSG-1 / RSG-3 / RSG-5 / RSG-10 / RSG-30 (2008, for U1/U3/-/UX10/b121/YF&b113)
                • RE-1 / RE-3 / RE-10 / RE-30 (1999, for U1/U3/UX10/W100)
                • RSE-1 / RSE-3 / RSE-10 (1999, for U1/U3/UX10)

                Hybrid pianos Edit

                Hybrid grand pianos Edit
                Hybrid upright pianos Edit

                Stage pianos Edit

                Electric pianos Edit
                • CP-60M (upright, with MIDI)
                • CP-70
                • CP-70B
                • CP-70D (with 7band GEQ)
                • CP-70M (with 7GEQ & MIDI)
                • CP-80
                • CP-80D (with 7band GEQ)
                • CP-80M (with 7GEQ & MIDI)
                Analog stage pianos Edit
                • CP-7 (1982)
                • CP-10 (1979)
                • CP-20 (1977)
                • CP-30 (1976)
                • CP-11 / CP-11W (1981/1982)
                • CP-25 (1981)
                • CP-35 (1981)
                Digital stage pianos Edit
                • GS1 / GS2 (1980) — 1st FM synth of Yamaha.
                • CP1 (2009)
                • CP4 (2014)
                • CP5 (2010)
                • CP33 (2006)
                • CP40 (2014)
                • CP50 (2010)
                • CP73 (2019)
                • CP88 (2019) (2006)
                • PF10 / PF12 / PF15 (1983)
                • PF50 / PF60 (1986)
                • PF60 / PF80 (1985)
                • PF-85 (1987)
                • PF-500 (2002)
                • PF-1000 (2002)
                • PF1200 / PF1500 / PF2000 (1989)
                • S80

                Digital pianos Edit

                • Modus F01 (2007, 4colors:PB(blue)/PE(black)/PO(orange)/PR(red), similar to CLP-F01(2004))
                • Modus F11 (2007, 4colors)
                • Modus H01 (2006, 3colors:AG(yellow)/DB(black)/VR(red))
                • Modus H11 (2009, 3colors)
                • Modus R01 (2009, white)
                • H-10
                Clavinova series Edit
                • YP-10 / YP-20 / YP-30 (1983) , 1st generation
                • YP-40 (1983, export model) , 1st generation
                • CWP-1 (2001)
                • CGP-1000 (May 8, 2006)
                • CVP-309GP (October 29, 2003)
                • CVP-409GP (May 8, 2006)
                • CLP-175 (2003, export model) , predecessor of CLP-295GP
                • CLP-265GP (2006)
                • CLP-295GP (2006)
                • CVP-3 / CVP-5 / CVP-7 (1985)
                • CVP-6 / CVP-8 / CVP-10 / CVP-100MA / CVP-100PE (1987)
                • CVP-20 (1988, export model)
                • CVP-30 / CVP-50 / CVP-70 (1989)
                • CVP-35 / CVP-45 / CVP-55 / CVP-65 / CVP-75 (1991)
                • CVP-25 (1993, export model)
                • CVP-83 / CVP-85 / CVP-87 (1993)
                • CVP-85A
                • CVP-83S[White] / CVP-87A[White]
                • CVP-89 (1994, export model)
                • CVP-49 (1995, export model)
                • CVP-59[S] / CVP-69 / CVP-79 (1995)
                • CVP-79A
                • CVP-92 / CVP-94 / CVP-96 / CVP-98 (February 18, 1997)
                • CVP-600 (February 18, 1997)
                • CVP-103 [M] / CVP-105 / CVP-107 / CVP-109 (March 1, 1999)
                • CVP-700 (March 1, 1999, export model)
                • CVP-201 (March 1, 2001)
                • CVP-203 / CVP-205 / CVP-207 / CVP-209 (June 25, 2001)
                • CVP-900 (May 27, 2002, export model)
                • CVP-202 (November 1, 2002)
                • CVP-204 [C] / CVP-206 [M] (September 10, 2002)
                • CVP-208 [M] / CVP-210 (September 10, 2002, export model)
                • CVP-301 (October 29, 2003, export model)
                • CVP-303 [C] / CVP-305 [C] / CVP-307 / CVP-309 [PE][PM] (October 29, 2003)
                • CVP-401 [C][PE] / CVP-403 [C][PE][PM] / CVP-405 [PE][PM] / CVP-407 / CVP-409 [PE][PM] (May 8, 2006)
                • CVP-501 / CVP-503 / CVP-505 [PE] / CVP-509 [PE][PM] (February 5, 2009)
                • CVP-601 / CVP-605 / CVP-609 / CVP-609GP (July 13, 2012)
                • CVP-701 / CVP-705 / CVP-709 / CVP-709GP (June 17, 2015)
                • CVP-805 / CVP-809 / CVP-809GP (May 1, 2019)
                • CLP-20 / CLP-30 (1985)
                • CLP-40 / CLP-45 / CLP-50 / CLP-55 / CLP-200 / CLP-300 (1986)
                • CLP-100 / CLP-500 (1987)
                • CLP-250 / CLP-350 / CLP-550 / CLP-650 (1988)
                • CLP-570 / CLP-670 (1989)
                • CLP-260 / CLP-360 / CLP-560 / CLP-760 (1990)
                • CLP-121 / CLP-122 / CLP-123 / CLP-124 (1992)
                • CLP-133 / CLP-134 / CLP-705 (1993)
                • CLP-152S / CLP-153S / CLP-153SG / CLP-154S / CLP-155 / CLP-157 (1994)
                • CLP-311 / CLP-611 / CLP-811 (1996, export model)
                • CLP-411 / CLP-511 / CLP-711 / CLP-911 (1996)
                • CLP-555 (1997, AE action, grand piano style)
                • CLP-810S (1998, export model)
                • CLP-820 / CLP-840 / CLP-860[M] / CLP-870 / CLP-880[M][PE] (1998)
                • CLP-920 / CLP-930 / CLP-950[C][M] / CLP-970[C][M] (2000)
                • CLP-955 / CLP-970A[C][M] (2000, export model)
                • CLP-910 / CLP-990[M] (2001, export model)
                • CLP-110 (2002, export model)
                • CLP-120[C] / CLP-130 / CLP-150[C][M] / CLP-170[C][M][PE] (2002/2003(PE))
                • CLP-115 (2003, export model)
                • CLP-175 (2003, Clavinova Grand, export model)
                • CLP-220[PE] (2005/2006)
                • CLP-230[C][M][PE] / CLP-240[C][M][PE] / CLP-270[C][M] / CLP-280[C][PE][PM] (2005/2006)
                • CLP-320[C][M] / SCLP-320 / CLP-330[C][M][PE] / CLP-340[C][M][PE] / CLP-370[C][M][PE] / CLP-380[PE][PM] (2008)
                • CLP-430 / CLP-440 / CLP-470 / CLP-480 (2011?)
                • Clavinova 610
                • CLP-F01 (2004, 4colors: PB(blue)/PE(black)/PO(orange)/PR(red))
                • CLP-S306[PE] / CLP-S308[PE] (2008)
                • CLP-S406 / CLP-S408 (2011?)
                • CSP-150 [B][W][PE] (April 21, 2017)
                • CSP-170 [B][W][PE] (April 21, 2017)
                P-series (stands for "portable") Edit
                • P-35 (2012, GHS action)
                • P-45 (2015, GHS action)
                • P50m (1996, half rack)
                • P-60[S] (2002, GH action)
                • P-65 (2006, export model, GHS action)
                • P-70[S] (2005 or 2006, GHS action))
                • P-80[W] (1999/2001, GH action)
                • P-85[S] (2007, GHS action)
                • P-90 (2003, GH action)
                • P-95[S] (2010, GHS action)
                • P100 (1992, AE action) Clavinova PF series,
                • P-105 (2012, GHS action) (2015, GHS action) [S] (2001, GH action) [S] (2018, GHS action) (2018, GHS action)
                • P-140[S] (2005 or 2006, GH action)
                • P-150 (1995, AE2 action)
                • P-155[S] (2009, S = silver)
                • P-500 Clarinova Digital))
                • P155[B][S] (2009, GH action)
                • P-200 (1998, GH action)
                • P-250 (2003, GH action)
                • P-255 (2014, GH action)
                • P-300 (1994, AE action) P500 features in P-100 chessis,
                • P-500 (AE action)
                • P-515 (2018, NWX action)
                ARIUS/YDP series Edit
                • YDP-S30[C] / YDP-S31[C] (2007/2009)
                • YDP-88 / YDP-88II (1995/1997)
                • YDP-101 / YDP-201 (1999)
                • YDP-113 (2002, export model)
                • YDP-121 (2001)
                • YDP-123 / YDP-223[C] (2002)
                • YDP-131[C] (2005)
                • YDP-140[C] / YDP-160[C] (2008)
                • YDP-141[C] / YDP-161[C][B] / YDP-181 / YDP-V240 (2010/2011(YDP-161B))
                • YDP-142 (2014, GHS) / YDP-162 (2014, GH)
                • YDP-143 [R][B] (2016, GHS) / YDP-163 (2016, GH)
                • YDP-144 (2019, GHS)/ YDP-164 (2019, GH3)
                • YDP-S34 (2019, GHS)/ YDP-S54 (2019,GH3) (2019)
                • YDP-151[C] / YDP-J151 (2005 or 2006/2006)
                • YDP-200 (1996)
                • YDP-213 (2005, export model)
                • YDP-223 (2002, export model)
                • YDP-300 (1995)
                • YDP-321 (2000)
                • YDP-323 (2005, export model)
                • YPP-15 / YPP-33 (1991)
                • YPP-35 (1991, export model)
                • YPP-45
                • YPP-50
                • YPP-55 (1992)
                • YPP-100 (2002)
                • YPP-200 (2001, export model)
                • YPR-6 / YPR-8 (1985)
                • YPR-7 / YPR-9 (1986)
                • YPR-20 / YPR-30 (1990)
                • YPR-50 (1999)
                • YPT-200 (15 November 2004)
                • YPT-210 (11 October 2006, export model)
                • YPT-220 (30 June 2008, export model)
                • YPT-230 (26 August 2010, export model))
                • YPT-240 (28 June 2012)
                • YPT-255 (1 January 2014)
                • YPT-300 (15 November 2004)
                • YPT-310 (21 August 2006, export model)
                • YPT-310AD / YPT-310MS / YPT-310MSB
                • YPT-320 (30 June 2008, export model)
                • YPT-330 (6 August 2010, export model)
                • YPT-340 (28 June 2012)
                • YPT-400 (17 November 2005, export model)
                • YPT-410 (23 July 2007, export model)
                • YPT-420 (1 December 2009, export model)
                J series electronic keyboard Edit
                • J-3000 (1998)
                • J-5000 (2000)
                • J-7000 (2002)
                • J-8000 (2005/2006)
                • J-9000 (2008)
                Piaggero/NP series portable digital piano Edit
                • NP-11
                • NP-12 (2016)
                • NP-30 / NP-30S (2007, S = silver)
                • NP-31
                • NP-32 (2016)
                • NP-V60 / NP-V80 (1 May 2009)
                Portable Grand DGX / YPG series Edit
                • DGX-200 (25 January 2002)
                • DGX-202 (25 January 2002, export model)
                • DGX-203 (27 January 2004, export model)
                • DGX-205 (27 January 2004, export model)
                • DGX-220 / YGP-225 (17 November 2005)
                • DGX-230]] / YPG-235 (10 October 2007) (76 keys with long production run replaced by PSR-EW300)
                • DGX-300 (12 March 2002)
                • DGX-305 (1 December 2003, export model)
                • DGX-500 (12 March 2002)
                • DGX-505 (1 December 2003, export model)
                • DGX-520 / YGP-525 (17 November 2005), USB to device replaces Smartmedia with USB Stick, Rectangular Styling, Lyrics and Score Display
                • DGX-530 / YGP-535 (10 October 2007) (88 keys, usb to device, 10 more rhythms) [4] / YPG-625 (17 November 2005) (88 graded hammer keys 32 voices, usb to device, large lyric score display, replaced by YPG-635)
                • DGX-630 [B][BP][P] / YPG-635 (14 May 2007) (88 graded hammer keys 130 voices, 32 registrations)
                • DGX-640 (18 March 2010), Restyled flat front round corners, front facing USB slot
                • DGX-650 (5 February 2013), 128 polyphony, 100 songs, 3 pedals, aux in, USB audio recorder [5]
                • DGX-660 (9 February 2015) mic input
                • DGX-670 (1 April 2020)
                • PSR-K1 (February 6, 2003)
                • N-100 (2006, with Graded Hammer Effect, weighted-action KB)
                • PDP400
                • PSR-GX76 (2000, export model, with Portable Grand)

                Organs Edit

                Pump organs Edit

                In 1888, Yamaha started to manufacture the pump organs in the form of reed organs.

                In 1921, Yamaha acquired the Nishikawa & Sons in Yokohama after a death of its founder, and continued to manufacture the Nishikawa organs and pianos until 1936.

                Magna organ [6] [7] seems to be a multi-timbral keyboard instrument based on electrically blown free reeds with pickups, and possibly similar to the electrostatic reed organs developed by Frederick Albert Hoschke in 1934 then manufactured by Everett and Wurlitzer until 1961.

                Electronic organs Edit

                The most models and years of introductions are based on official chronicle. [8] Also, the photograph of major models on each era is available on the 50th anniversary site. [9]

                • EX-42 (1970–1977, stage model, design origin of GX-1)
                • SY-1 (1971, [10] solo part of GX-1, monophonic synth with initial/after touch)
                • SY-2 (1971) [10]
                • GX-1 (1973 [11] to 1982, polyphonic synth)
                • EX-1 / EX-2 (1977–1983) [12]
                • FX-1 (1983–1988, FM synthesis)
                • HX System1 (1987–1992)
                • HX-1 / HX-1S (1987/1989, AWM(PCM)+FM)
                • ELX-1 / ELX-1m (1992/2000)
                • 305 / 315 (1979, export model)
                • 405 / 415 (1980, U.S. models of the D-65 / D-85)
                • 6000 (1981, export model)
                • 7000 (1982, export model)
                • A-2 (1960–1963)
                • A-3 (1966, red combo organ, forerunner of YC series)
                • A-40 / A-60 (1977, export model)
                • A-45 / A-55 (1978, export model)
                • A-505 (1982, export model)
                • AR-80 (1997, export model)
                • AR-100 (1996, export model)
                • B-1 (1961–1962)
                • B-3 (1964–1965)
                • B-5 (1965–1969)
                • B-6 (1966, export model)
                • B-7 / B-7D (1967, export model)
                • B-2 / B-6B (1968–1971)
                • B-6E / B-12 / B-12R (1970, export model)
                • B-2B / B-4 / B-5A / B-6D / B-10A (1971–1973. 1978(B-4))
                • B-4B / B-5BR / B-6ER / B10AR / B-20R (1971, export model)
                • B-4C / B-4CR / B-10BR / B-30R (1972, export model)
                • B-6R / B-10R (1972–1974/1975)
                • B-5CR (1973, export model)
                • B-2R (1974, export model)
                • B-11 / B-20 / B-30 / B-30T / B-50 / B-50T (1974–1975. 1978(B-30))
                • B-20CR / B-30AR / B-40R / B-50R (1976, export model)
                • B-40 / B-45 / B-60 (1977, export model)
                • B-35 / B-55 / B-75 (1978, export model)
                • B-70 (1979–1982)
                • B-101 / B-102 / B-103 (1982–1984)
                • B-204 / B-405 / B-605 / B-805 (1982, export model)
                • BK-2 (1975, export model)
                • BK-4 / BK-7 (1973, export model)
                • BK-4C / BK-5C / BK-20C (1976, export model)
                • BK-5 (1974)
                • BK-6 (1971, export model)
                • BK-10 (1976–1978)
                • BK-20A (1972, export model)
                • BK-30 / BK-50 (1975–1978)
                • C-1 (1964–1966)
                • C-2 / C-2S (1966–1967)
                • C-1B / C-2B (1967–1971)
                • C-4 / C-5A (1971–1973/1974)
                • C-4R / C-5R (1972–1974/1975)
                • C-10T (1973–1975)
                • C-10 / C-10H / C-30 / C-30H / C-30T / C-50 / C-50T (1974–1975)
                • C-40 / C-60 (1977, export model)
                • C-35 / C-35i (1978, export model)
                • C-80 / C-90 (1979–1982)
                • C-100 / C-200 / C-300 / C-400 (1978–1981/1982(C-300))
                • C-201 / C-301 / C-401 / C-501 (1982–1983/1984(C-301))
                • C-405 / C-605 (1982, export model)
                • CK-10 (1975–1978)
                • CK-30 / CK-50 (1976–1978)
                • CN-50 (1979, export model)
                • CSY-1 (1974–1975)
                • CSY-2 (1975, export model)
                • D-1 (1959–1962)
                • D-1B (1962)
                • D-2 (1962, export model)
                • D-2B (1967–1971)
                • D-3 (1971–1972)
                • D-3R / D-10 (1971–1975)
                • D-7 (1969–1972)
                • D-7R (1969, export model)
                • D-20 / D-30 (1975–1977)
                • D-30E (1976, export model)
                • D-40 / D-60 / D-90 (1977–1980)
                • D-65 / D-85 (1980, export model)
                • D-80 (1977, export model)
                • D-600 / D-700 / D-800 (1980–1981/1983)
                • D-500 (1983)
                • DK-40A (1972, export model)
                • DK-40C (1976, export model)
                • EL-7
                • EL-15
                • EL-17 (1995–2002)
                • EL-20 (1993–2000)
                • EL-25
                • EL-27 (1993–2000)
                • EL-37 (1994–2000)
                • EL-30 (1991–1996)
                • EL-40
                • EL-50 (1991–1996)
                • EL-57 (1996–1999)
                • EL-70 (1991–1996)
                • EL-87 / EL-87W (1995–1999)
                • EL-90 (1991–1998)
                • EL-100 (2002–2006)
                • EL-200 (2000–2002)
                • EL-400 (2000–2006)
                • EL-500 (1999–2003)
                • EL-700 (1999–2003)
                • EL-900 (1998–2003)
                • EL-900B (2002–2003)
                • EL-900m (2000–2003)
                • ELK-10 (1994–2001)
                • ELK-400 (2001–2006)
                • ELX-1 (1992–2000)
                • ELX-1m (2000–2005)
                • ELB-01 / ELB-01K (2006–2015)
                • ELS-01 / ELS-01C (2004–2014)
                • ELS-01X (2005–2014)
                • ELS-01U / ELS-01CU / ELS-01XU (2009–)
                • ELS-02 / ELS-02C / ELS-02X (2014-)
                • ELB-02 (2015-)
                • ELC-02 (2016-)
                • DDK-7 (2006, Stagea with portable keyboard style)
                • F-1 (1964–1979)
                • F-2 (1966–1975)
                • F-30 / F-70 / F-50 (1981–1988)
                • F-5 / F-15 / F-25 / F-35 / F-45 / F-55 (1984, export model)
                • F-100 / F-200 (1994–2000)
                • F-300 / F-400 (1992–2000/1996)
                • F-700 (1989)
                • FC-10 / FC-20 (1984–1986)
                • FE-30 / FE-40 / FE-50 / FE-50M / FE-50MB / FE-60 / FE-70 (1984–1986/1987)
                • FS-20 / FS-30 / FS-30M / FS-50 / FS-70 (1983–1986. 1988(FS-30M))
                • FS-30A (1986–1987)
                • FS-100 / FS-200 / FS-300 / FS-500 (1983, export model)
                • FX-1 / FX-3 / FX-10 / FX-20 (1983–1987/1988)
                • HA-10 (1988–2001, 1manual)
                • HC-1 / HC-3 (1989–1994/1993)
                • HE-5 (1988–1994)
                • HK-10 (1988–1995)
                • HS-4 / HS-5 / HS-6 / HS-7 / HS-8 (1987–1992)
                • HX System1 (1987–1992)
                • HX-3 / HX-5 (1987–1992)
                • HX-1S (1989)
                • CHX-1 (1987, export model)
                • MC-200 / MC-400 / MC-600
                • ME-400 / ME-600 (1985–1987)
                • ME-15 / ME-35 / ME-55 (1986–1989, portable keyboard style)
                • MR-1 (1983, export model, single manual)
                • T-30 / T-60 (1966)
                • US-1 (1988, export model)
                • US-1000 (1988, export model, single manual)

                Combo organs Edit

                Ensemble keyboards Edit

                • SS30 (1977, string ensemble)
                • CE20 / CE25 (1982) — cost down preset version of FM synth GS1 / GS2.
                • SY20 (1982, ensemble synthesizer for classroom)
                • SK10 (1979, organ/string/brass)
                • SK15 (1981, organ/poly-synth/string)
                • SK20 (1980, organ/poly-synth)
                • SK30 (1980, organ/poly-synth/solo-synth)
                • SK50D (1980, 2 manuals organ/poly-synth/solo-synth/bass)

                Synthesizers Edit

                • SY-1 (1974, solo part of GX-1, monophonic synth with initial/after touch)
                • SY-2 (c. 1975, a successor of SY-1)
                • for the workstations, see below
                • CS-01 (1982, shoulder keyboard, with breath controller)
                • CS-5 (1978)
                • CS-10 (1977) (1978, monophonic dual channel)
                • CS-15D (1978, monophonic dual channel)
                • CS-20M (1979, monophonic, patch memory) / CS30L (1977, monophonic dual modules, L = live performance version without analog seq.)
                • CS-40M (1979, 2-voice, patch memory)
                • CS-50 (1977, 4-voice) (1977, 8-voice)
                • CS-70M (1981, 6-voice dual channel, patch memory, polyphonic seq.) (1976, 8-voice [13] dual channel)
                  (1983, dual DX7 with display) (1985, dual DX7) / DX7S (1983/1987) / DX7IIFD (1986)
            • DX7IIFD centennial / DX7IIC (1987) (1983, 4op FM) (1987, 4op FM)
              • — clustering rack version of 8× DX7 (1985) — desktop module version of DX7 — rack mount version of DX7II except for unison (1987) — rack mount versions of DX11
                (1985, 4op FM) / DX27S / SDX27S (1985/1986/1986, S = speakers, SDX = classroom model ?) (1985, 4op FM, DX27 with mini keyboard)
              • VL1 / VL1m (1993/1994, Self oscillation/Virtual Acoustic synthesizer)
              • VL7 / VL70m (1994/1996, cost down version of VL1/VL1m) [14]
              • VP1 (1994, Free oscillation/Virtual Acoustic synthesizer)
                (1997, virtual analog) (1996, similar to MU50. AWM2 engine, sample-based synthesis.) (1998, similar to MU90 except for insertion effects. AWM2 engine.)
          • CS6x / CS6R (1999, support MSPS. AWM2 engine.)
            • S03[BL] / S03SL (2001/2004, BL = black, SL = silver)
            • S08 (2002, extended version of S03, support XG and GM2)
            • S30 (2000, based on CS6x)
            • S70 XS (2009, based on Motif XS without sequencer and sampler) (1999, based on CS6x) (2002, based on Motif 8 without sequencer and sampler)
            • S90ES (2005, based on Motif 8 ES without sequencer and sampler, support MSPS)
            • S90XS (2009, based on Motif XS without sequencer and sampler)
            • MX49 / MX61 (2012) - successor to MM6/MM8, with more than 1000 sounds from Motif XS
            • MX88 (2017)
              (2015, 8 voice (single multimode oscillator per voice), virtual analog synthesizer based on the CS series)
        • Reface DX (2015, 8 Voice, 4 op fm based on the DX series)
        • Music workstations Edit

            (1990) — AWM2 and FM-based Vector synthesis
      • SY35 (1992) — AWM2 and FM-based Vector synthesis
      • SY55 (1990) — PCM-only (AWM2), without Sample RAM (like SY77) (1989) — RCM synthesis (1992) — PCM-only (AWM2), with Sample RAM (1991) — RCM synthesis
        • TG33 (1990) — rack mount version of SY22
        • TG55 (1989) — rack mount version of SY55
        • TG500 (1992) — rack mount version of SY85 (1990)— rack mount version of SY77 (1998) — FM and formant synthesis
        • W5 / W5 ver.2 (1994/1995)
        • W7 / W7 ver.2 (1994/1995) — 61-key, AWM2 synthesis [15]
          (1998)
    • EX7 (1998)
      • 6/7/8 (2001) [16]
  • Motif-Rack (2002) 6/7/8 (2003)
  • Motif-Rack ES (2004) / MO8 / SDX-4000 (SDX = classroom keyboard based on MO6S) (2005) / MM8 (2007/2008) - successor to EOS B2000
  • Motif XS 6/7/8 (2007)
  • Motif-Rack XS (2008)
  • Motif XF (2010)
  • MOX6 / MOX8 (2011) - with the sound engine and sample-ROM from Motif XS, half polyphony, no sampler
  • MOXF6 / MOXF8 (2013) - sound engine and sample-ROM from Motif XF, optional sample-flash-ROM
  • Motif XF6/XF7/XF8 WH (2014) - 40th Anniversary, special edition MOTIF XF white
    • Montage 6/7/8 (2016)
    • MODX 6/7/8 (2018)
    • Montage 6/7/8 WH (2019) - white edition
    • QS300 (1995) — music workstation similar to EOSB900, based on QY300+MU50 [17]
    Arranger workstations Edit
    • Tyros (1 May 2002) (21 June 2005)
    • Tyros3 (17 April 2008)
    • Tyros4 (16 June 2010)
    • Tyros5 (13 July 2013)

    Genos series (The 'SX' Series are Based On the Genos)

    • Genos (31 August 2017)
    • PSR-1500 (21 January 2004)
    • PSR-3000 (21 January 2004)
    • PSR-7000 (1995, export model)
    • PSR-6000
    • PSR-5700
    • PSR-8000 (8 September 1997, export model)
    • PSR-9000 (9 September 1999, export model)
    • PSR-9000 Pro (2000, export model)
    • PSR-A300 (2005, export model)
    • PSR-A1000 (29 March 2002, exported oriental model)
    • PSR-OR700 (8 May 2006, oriental model)
    • PSR-A2000 (10 September 2010, oriental model)
    • PSR-A3000 (17 June 2015, oriental model)
    • PSR-640
    • PSR-1000 (2001,export model)
    • PSR-740
    • PSR-1100 (2002,export model)
    • PSR-2000 (2001,export model)
    • PSR-2100 (2002,export model)
    • PSR-S500 (18 July 2006)
    • PSR-S550 / PSR-S550B (11 April 2008. Note: The -B model is black instead of silver)
    • PSR-S650 (13 September 2010)
    • PSR-S700 (8 May 2006)
    • PSR-S710 (5 February 2009)
    • PSR-S900 (8 May 2006)
    • PSR-S910 (5 February 2009)
    • PSR-S750 (26 April 2012)
    • PSR-S950 (26 April 2012)
    • PSR-S670 (25 February 2015)
    • PSR-S770 (25 February 2015)
    • PSR-S970 (25 February 2015)
    • PSR-S775 (1 January 2018)
    • PSR-S975 (1 January 2018)

    PSR-SX (Replaces the PSR-S series)

    Workstations Edit

    • MU5 (1994)
    • MU15 (1998)
    • QR10 (c. 1993, Music Accompaniment Player with sampler and speaker)
    • QY8 (1994) (1990)
    • QY20 (1992)
    • QY22 (1995)
    • QY70 (1997)(AWM2 engine) [18]
    • QY100 [19] (2000)(AWM2 engine)
    • QY300 (c. 1994)
    • QY700 (1996)

    Groove machines Edit

    • AN200 (2001) — desktop module [20] based on PLG150-AN similar to AN1x, with drum sound and step sequencer.
    • DX200 (2001) — desktop module based on PLG150-DX compatible with DX7, [21] with additional filter & envelope, drum sounds and step sequencer.
    • PSRD1 / PSRD1-DJX (1998, DJ keyboard)
    • DJX-II / DJX-IIB (2000, DJ keyboard/DJ groove machine) (1998)
    • RS7000 (2001) [22]
    • RX5 (1986)
    • RX7 (1987)

    Drum machines Edit

    • RX5 (1986)
    • RX7 (1987)
    • RX8 (1988, 43 samples)
    • RX11 (1984)
    • RX15 (1984)
    • RX17 (1987)
    • RX21 / RX21L (1985, L = Latin percussion)
    • RX120 (1988, 38 samples)
    • RY8 (1994)
    • RY9 (1999)
    • RY10 (1992) [23]
    • RY20 (1994)
    • RY30 (1991, AWM2(16bit PCM))
    • RM50 [24] (1993) - drum sound module
    • MR10 (1983)
    • DD5 (c. 1989) [25]
    • DD10
    • PTX8 (1986) Percussion Tone Generator
      (1992) Drum Trigger Module

    Samplers Edit

      (1987)
      (1987)
    • VSS-100 (1985) (1988 or 1989)
    • A3000 / A3000 ver.2 (1997)
    • A4000 (1999)
    • A5000 (1999)
    • A7000 / A7000 ver.2 (1995)
    • SU10 (1995)
    • SU200 (2000)
    • SU700 (1998)

    Sound modules Edit

    • CBXT3 — General MIDI and other modes supported — (1986) 4op FM/8 multi-timbral sound module, suitable for CX5M system. a forerunner of TG & MU series (1998) — FM/Formant synthesis
    • TG100 (1991) — General MIDI sound module [26]
    • TG300 / TG300GRAY (1993/1994) — PCM, [27]GS compatible
    • TG500 (1992)
    • TX1P (1987, piano)
    XG sound modules Edit
    • MU5
    • MU10
    • MU15 (1995)
    • MU50 (1995, half-rack unit)
    • MU80 (1994/1996)
    • MU90/ MU90R / MU90B
    • MU100 / MU100R / MU100B / MU100BS (1997/?/1998/1999)
    • MU128 (1998)
    • MU500 (2000)
    • MU1000 (1999)
    • MU2000 / MU2000EX (1999/)

    Plug-in sound boards Edit

    • DB50XG (1995) — XG sound daughter-board for Wave Blaster port
    • DB51XG (1998?) — XG sound daughter-board for Wave Blaster port, smaller footprint than DB50XG, main processor is XU94700 (a very big chip)
    • DB60XG (?) — XG sound daughter-board for Wave Blaster port with audio-in (like SW60XG), only for Japan
    • NEC XR385 (?) — OEM/Licensed? XG sound board for (unknown) karaoke machine, audio inputs are suitable for microphone instead of line levels
    • PLG150-AN — Analog physical modeling synthesis, similar to AN1x
    • PLG150-AP — sampling grand piano, based on Yamaha NEW CFIIIS
    • PLG150-DR — drum sound, equivalent to drum part of Motif
    • PLG100-DX — plug-in board version of DX7
    • PLG150-DX — successor of PLG100-DX, compatible with DX7
    • PLG150-PC — percussion sound, based on Latin Groove Factory/Q Up Arts
    • PLG150-PF — PCM piano sound
    • PLG150-SG — formant synging synthesizer, forerunner of Vocaloid[29]
    • PLG100-VH — vocoder / harmonizer board
    • PLG100-VL — plug-in board version of VL70m
    • PLG150-VL — successor of PLG100-VL, similar to VA algorithm on EX5
    • PLG100-XG — XG sound, based on MU50/MU100 (1996), an ISA version

    Software synthesizers Edit

    • BODiBEAT
    • MIDPLUG (1997)
    • S-YG20
    • S-YXG50 (1997)
    • S-YXG70
    • S-YXG100
    • S-YXG100 PVL

    MIDI controllers Edit

    • KX25 (2008)
    • KX49 (2008)
    • KX61 (2008)
    • KX8 (2008, GHS action)
    • KX76 (1985, initial/after touch)
    • KX88 (1984, piano touch, initial/after touch)
    • CBX-K1 / CBX-K1XG (1995, XG = XG sound)
    • CBX-K2 (1998)
    • CBX-K3 (1993)
    Keytars Edit
    • CS-01 (1982, shoulder analog synth with breath controller)
    • KX-1 (1983) (1984) [R][S][B] (1987/1988, FM & MIDI, similar to PSS-390, R = red, S = silver, B = black (1988)) [30]
    • SHS-200 (1988)
    Guitar synthesizers Edit
    • G10 (1988, guitar MIDI Controller (using super sonic sensor)/Sound module, compatible with TX802/TX81Z)
    • G1D (1996, HEX pickup)
    • G50 (1996, guitar MIDI converter for G1D/B1D/B5D)
    • B1D / B5D (1997/?, bass HEX pickup)
    • EZ-EG (2002 or 2003, EZ series, electric guitar style, 6strings, 12frets)
    • EZ-AG (2003 or 2005, EZ series, acoustic guitar style, 6strings, 12frets)
    Wind controllers Edit
    Tenori-on Edit
    Wearable Instruments Edit

    Interfaces Edit

    MIDI interfaces Edit
    MIDI effects Edit
    MLAN Edit

    Music sequencers Edit

    • QX1 (1984)
    • QX3 (1987)
    • QX5 / QX5FD (1986/1988 or 1989)
    • QX7 (1985)
    • QX21 (1985)
    Music data recorders Edit
    • MDF1 (1986, media: 2.8-inch Quick Disk)
    • MDF2 (media: 3.5-inch 2D FD)
    • MDF3 (media: 3.5-inch 2HD FD)
    • DSR-1 (1987, digital sequencer recorder)
    Music data player Edit

    Music computers Edit

    • C1 / C1/20 (1987) — IBM PC compatiblelaptop PC for music production ([email protected] MHz), with 8 MIDI ports and Voyetra sequencer. /20 = 20M HD / CX5F (1984) — MSX computer for music production, with SFG-01 FM synthesizer unit including MIDI I/O
    • CX7M/128 (1985)— successor of CX5M, MSX2 version, with SFG-05 FM synthesizer unit

    Music software Edit

    Computer music packages Edit

    • CBX-101 (1992)
    • CBX-201 (1992)
    • CBX-302 (1993)
      • CBX-S3 (1993, stereo speaker)
      • CBX-T3 (1993, tone generator with MIDI I/F)

      Classroom keyboards Edit

      • SY20 (1982, ensemble synthesizer for classroom)
      • SDX27S (1986, classroom version of DX27S)
      • SDX-2000 (1989, classroom keyboard based on EOS B200)
      • SDX-3000 (1995, classroom keyboard based on EOS B900)
      • SDX-4000 (classroom keyboard based on MO6S)

      Portable keyboards Edit

      • TYU-30 Fun-Keyboard (mini KB, squarewave tone) [30]
      • TYU-40 (mini KB, squarewave tone, pitchbender & microphone) [30]

      PortaSound Edit

      • PS-1 / PS-2 [30] / PS-3 (1980, mini KB)
      • PS-10 / PS-20 [30] / PS-30 [30] / PS-30B (1981/1982, 44-48key)
      • PS-300 / PS-400 (1982, mini KB)
      • MP-1 (1982, mini KB, with built-in musical score printer) [30]
      • PS-25 / PS-35 / PS-35S (1983, S = stereo speakers) (1983, S = stereo speakers, CPU Intel 8085, Waveform Synth IG09510) [32]
      • MK-100 (1983, mini KB, digital sound) [30]
      • PS-200 (1984, mini KB)
      • PS-6100 (1984)
      PortaSound PlayCard series Edit
        (1983, mini KB)
    • PC-100 (1982, mini KB) [30]
    • PC-1000 (1983)
    • PCS-30 [30] / PCS-500 [30] (1984)
    • PCR-800 (1985)
    • PortaSound PSS series Edit
      • PSS-6 (1994, sample) [30]
      • PSS-7 (1997, ellipse shape body wavetable (or sample) with granular sounds) [30]
      • PSS-8 (1988)
      • PSS-9 (1990)
      • PSS-11 / PSS-21 / PSS-31 [30] / PSS-51 (1992, sample)
      • PSS-12 (1994)
      • PSS-14 (1997, wavetable (or sample) with granular sounds) [30]
      • PSS-15 (1997)
      • PSS-16 (FM, acc.&demo) [30]
      • PSS-20 (1989) [30]
      • PSS-26 (1995)
      • PSS-30 (1982) [30]
      • PSS-50 (1990, FM with realitime sliders)
      • PSS-51 (1992)
      • PSS-80 [30] / PSS-80R / PSS-100 [30] / PSS-280 / PSS-380 / PSS-580 / PSS-780 (1989, R = red)
      • PSS-102 / PSS-104 (1991, with music card, music cartridge (PSS-102) and microphone)
      • PSS-110 [30] / PSS-150 [30] / PSS-260 [30] / PSS-450 (1985, squarewave/squarewave/digital/?)
      • PSS-125 (8 voice polyphony, 32 Keys, squarewave) [33]
      • PSS-120 / PSS-160 [30] (1986)
      • PSS-130 [30] (1987)
      • PSS-140 37-keys 100-sounds, YM2413[30] / PSS-480 / PSS-680 (1988, FM&acc)
      • PSS-170 44-keys 100-sounds, YM2413 (1986)
      • PSS-190 / PSS-290 / [30] / PSS-590 / PSS-790 (1990, FM with realtime sliders)
      • PSS-270 49-keys 100-sounds, YM2413 (1986, two FM operators, nine voice polyphony), XC194AO [34]
      • PSS-280 (1986, reduced feature version of PSS-270)
      • PSS-360 (1986, squarewave)
      • PSS-370 (1987)
      • PSS-390 (1990)
      • PSS-401 (c. 1985, 44-key edition of PS-300, with additional octave control, reduced rhythm section)
      • PSS-460 49-keys 21-sounds, YM3812, (1986)
      • PSS-470 49-keys 21-sounds, YM3812, (1987)
      • PSS-560 49-keys 21-sounds, YM3812, additional drum chip (1986)
      • PSS-570 49-keys 21-sounds, YM3812, additional drum chip (1987)
      • PSS-680 (FM, MIDI & drum pads) (1988)
      • PSS-780 (FM, MIDI & drum pads) [30] (1989)
      • PSS-790 (1990)
      • PSS-795 (1990)

      HandySound Edit

      PortaTone Edit

      PortaTone DSR series Edit
      PortaTone PSR series Edit
      • PSR-2 (1990)
      • PSR-3 (1991)
      • PSR-6 49-keys 100-sounds YM2413 chip (1989)
      • PSR-7 49-keys 40-sounds
      • PSR-11 49-keys 16-sounds, YM3812 chip, (1986)
      • PSR-12 49-keys 32-sounds, YM3812 chip, (1987)
      • PSR-15 (1984)
      • PSR-16 (1988)
      • PSR-18 / PSR-28 / PSR-38 / PSR-48 (1990)
      • PSR-19 (1990)
      • PSR-21 (1986)
      • PSR-22 / PSR-32 (1987)
      • PSR-27 / PSR-37 / PSR-47 (1989)
      • PSR-31 61-keys 16-sounds, YM3812, additional chip for drums (1991)
      • PSR-32 61-keys 32-sounds, YM3812, additional chip for drums (1987)
      • PSR-36 (1988)
      • PSR-40 / PSR-50
      • PSR-62, (1985) / oriental model.
      • PSR-60, contains YM2154 rhythm chip, (1985) [36]
      • PSR-70, contains YM2154 rhythm chip, (1985) [36]
      • PSR-73
      • PSR-74
      • PSR-75 (1992)
      • PSR-76 (1994)
      • PSR-77 (1995)
      • PSR-78 (1996)
      • PSR-79 (1998)
      • PSR-80, contains YM2414 (fm) and YM2154 (rhythm) chips (1987) [37]
      • PSR-90 (1987)
      • PSR-85
      • PSR-100 (1991)
      • PSR-110 (1993)
      • PSR-125 (2002)
      • PSR-130 (1997)
      • PSR-140 / PSR-140PC (1999)
      • PSR-150 (1992)
      • PSR-160 (2000, export model)
      • PSR-170 (2001 or 2002)
      • PSR-172 (2003)
      • PSR-175 (2004, export model)
      • PSR-180 (1994)
      • PSR-185 (1995)
      • PSR-190 (1996)
      • PSR-195 / PSR-195PC (1998)
      • PSR-200 (1991)
      • PSR-201 (2000)
      • PSR-202 (2002, export model)
      • PSR-210 (1993)
      • PSR-215 (1995)
      • PSR-220/PSR-220PC (1996)
      • PSR-225/PSR-225GM/PSR-225PC (1995)
      • PSR-230 (1996)
      • PSR-240 (1999)
      • PSR-248 (1999)
      • PSR-260 (26 January 2000)
      • PSR-262 (26 January 2000)
      • PSR-270 (7 December 1998)
      • PSR-273 (29 January 2003, export model)
      • PSR-275 (29 January 2003)
      • PSR-280 (8 March 2001)
      • PSR-282 (26 January 2000, export model)
      • PSR-290 (25 January 2002)
      • PSR-292 (25 January 2002, export model)
      • PSR-293 (27 January 2004, export model)
      • PSR-295 (27 January 2004, export model)
      • PSR-300 (7 March 1991)
      • PSR-310 / PSR-310M (11 January 1993)
      • PSR-320 (23 March 1995)
      • PSR-330 (31 January 1997)
      • PSR-340 (1 March 1999)
      • PSR-350 (26 January 2001)
      • PSR-400 (19 May 1991)
      • PSR-403
      • PSR-410 (15 June 1993)
      • PSR-420 (23 March 1995)
      • PSR-450 (12 December 2003)
      • PSR-500 / PSR-500M (19 May 1991)
      • PSR-510 / PSR-510M (15 June 1993)
      • PSR-520 (18 May 1995)
      • PSR-530 / PSR-530PC (14 April 1997)
      • PSR-540 / PSR-540PC (3 March 1999)
      • PSR-550 (30 November 2000)
      • PSR-600 (1992)
      • PSR-620 (1995)
      • PSR-630 (14 April 1997)
      • PSR-640 (3 March 1999)
      • PSR-730 (14 April 1997)
      • PSR-740 (3 March 1999)
      • PSR-1000 (25 June 2001)
      • PSR-1100 (10 September 2002)
      • PSR-1700 (1993, export model)
      • PSR-2000 (25 June 2001)
      • PSR-2100 (10 September 2002)
      • PSR-2500 / PSR-3500 / PSR-4500 (1989)
      • PSR-2700 (1993, export model)
      • PSR-4000 (1995)
      • PSR-4600 (1990, export model)
      • PSR-5700 (1992)
      • PSR-6000 (1994, export model)
      • PSR-6300 (1986), contains two YM2414 (FM) and YM2154 (rhythm) chips
      • PSR-6700 (1991, export model)
      • PSR-E203 (15 November 2004)
      • PSR-E213 (11 October 2006)
      • PSR-E223 (30 June 2008)
      • PSR-E233 (26 August 2010)
      • PSR-E243 (28 June 2012)
      • PSR-E253 (1 January 2014)
      • PSR-E263 (29 March 2016)
      • PSR-E273 (1 January 2020)
      • PSR-E303 (15 November 2004)
      • PSR-E313 (21 August 2006) (30 June 2008)
      • PSR-E333 (6 August 2010)
      • PSR-E343 (28 June 2012)
      • PSR-E353 (29 September 2014)
      • PSR-E363 (31 August 2016)
      • PSR-E373 (26 February 2020)
      • PSR-E403 (17 November 2005)
      • PSR-E413 (10 October 2007)
      • PSR-E423 (1 May 2009, with touch response)
      • PSR-E433 (28 December 2011)
      • PSR-E443 (2 September 2013)
      • PSR-E453 / PSR-EW400 (17 September 2015, Stadium Rock is first style, SurfRock, BeachRock, CanadianRock, ChartPianoPop, 70sRock added in 8Beat, New Style Collection is Movie & Show and 38 styles including WildWest, Showtune and TapDanceSwing, etc. in Movie & Show and Another Style collection is Entertainer and 34 styles in Entertainer)
      • PSR-E463 / PSR-EW410 (17 April 2017, 758 high quality voices with 1 sample voice for sampling, 235 styles, 30 built in songs, 10 user songs, 8 banks with 4 registrations, and groove generator) The EW410 offers 76 keys and features phono jacks for connecting external powered speakers. The E463 has 61 keys.
      • PSR-I500 (2019, with Indian styles)
      • PSR-I455 (2012, with Indian styles)
      • PSR-I425 (2011, with touch response)
      • PSR-A3 (1995, with Arabic Scale)
      • PSR-D1 / PSRD1-DJX (1998, DJ keyboard)
      • PSR-GX76 (2000, export model, with Portable Grand)
      • PSR-K1 (6 February 2003, with Karaoke function and built-in microphone)
      • PSR-F51
      • EOS YS100 / YS100 (1988, easy operating FM synth, 4op FM/8 muti-timbral) [17]
      • EOS YS200 / YS200 / TQ5 (1988, YS100 with 8track sequencer, TQ = desktop module version) [17]
      • EOS DS55 (c. 1988)
      • EOS B200 / SDX-2000 (1988/1989, SDX = classroom keyboard) [17]
      • EOS B500 (1990)
      • EOS B700 (1993, minor change of B500)
      • EOS B900 / SDX-3000 (1995/1995, floppy disk, SDX = classroom keyboard)
      • EOS B900EX (1996, minor change of B900, with blue body and USB)
      • EOS B2000 / EOS B2000W (1998, with sequencer similar to QY700, sampling similar to SU10, W = white)
      • EOS BX (2001, produced by Daisuke Asakura, based on S03 with USB)

      EZ series Edit

      • EZ-J14 (2003)
      • EZ-J15 (2005)
      • EZ20 (2001, export model)
      • PSR-J20 / PSR-J20C (1999)
      • PSR-J21 (2000)
      • EZ-J22 (2001)
      • EZ-J23 (2002, silver & pink)
      • EZ-J24 (2003)
      • EZ-J25 (2005)
      • EZ-30 (26 January 2001, export model)
      • EZ-300 (2020)
      • PSR-J51 (2000)
      • EZ-J53 (2002)
      • EZ-150 (2003, export model)
      • EZ-200 / EZ-J200 (18 January 2007)
      • EZ-220 (20 February 2012)
      • EZ-J210 (2009)
      • EZ-250i (17 March 2003, export model, bundled KonamiKeyboard Mania)

      Silent instruments Edit

      Electric violins Edit

      • YSV-104
      • SV-120 (discontinued)
      • SV-130 (discontinued)
      • SV-150 (discontinued)
      • SV-200 (discontinued)
      • EV-204 (discontinued)
      • EV-205 (discontinued)
      • SV-250
      • SV-255

      Electric violas Edit

      Electric cellos Edit

      Electric upright basses Edit

      Guitars Edit

      Acoustic guitars Edit

      Classical guitars Edit
      • GC-3 (c. 1967)
      • GC-5 (c. 1967) Solid cedar top, laminate rosewood back and sides
      • GC-7 (c. 1967) Solid cedar top, laminate rosewood back and sides
      • GC-10 (c. 1967) Solid cedar top, Solid rosewood back and sides
      • gc 60 (c. 1968)
      • Concert Classic 80 (c. 1968)
      • Concert Classic 100 (c. 1968)
      • Concert Classic 120 (c. 1968)
      • Concert Classic 150 (c. 1968)
      • GC-5F (c. 1968)
      • GC-7F (c. 1968)
      • GC-10F (c. 1968)
      • GC-30A (c. 1974)
      • GC-30B (c. 1974)
      • GC-30C (c. 1974)
      • C-30S (c. 1984, small body)
      • C-50S (c. 1984, small body)
      • C-170A (c. 1984)
      • C-200A (c. 1984)
      • C-250A (c. 1984)
      • C-300A (c. 1984)
      • C-400A (c. 1984)
      • C-530 (c. 1988)
      • CG-150 (c. 1968) [38]
      • CG-180SA (c. 1966)
      • CG-100A
      • CG-101A
      • CG-120
      • CG-120A
      • CG-151
      • CG-171SF
      • GD-10[C] (1990)
      • GD-20[C] (1990)
      • GD-20[E][CE] (1992)
      • G50A 1969-72 $69.50
      • G-60 1970- $59.00 Two-piece spruce top, maple back and sides, rosewood fingerboard and bridge, length 39 + 1 ⁄ 4 inches, width
      • 14 + 1 ⁄ 2 inches
      • G60A 1969-73 $79.50
      • G65A 1972-74 $95.50
      • G70A 1969-72 $--.--
      • G-80 1970- (1970 price $69.00) Two-piece spruce top, maple back and sides, rosewood fingerboard and bridge, nineteen nickel silver frets, length
      • 39 + 1 ⁄ 4 inches, width
      • 14 + 1 ⁄ 2 inches
      • G80A 1969-74 $75.00
      • G85A 1970-72 $89.50
      • G90A 1967-74 $125.50
      • G-100 1967-76 (1970 price $79.00) Two-piece spruce top, maple back and sides, rosewood fingerboard and bridge with nineteen nickel silver frets, length
      • 39 + 1 ⁄ 4 inches, width
      • 14 + 1 ⁄ 2 inches
      • G100A 1970-72 $99.50
      • G-120 1970- (1970 price $89.00) Two-piece spruce top, curly maple back and sides, mahogany neck, rosewood fingerboard and bridge, length
      • 39 + 1 ⁄ 4 inches, width
      • 14 + 1 ⁄ 2 inches
      • G120A 1970-76 $142.50
      • G130A 1969-76 $119.50
      • G150A 1970-76 $166.50
      • G-160 1970-1977-? (1970 price $109.00) Two-piece spruce top, rosewood back and sides, mahogany neck, nineteen nickel silver frets, six color wood marquetry around soundhole, length
      • 39 + 1 ⁄ 4 inches, width
      • 14 + 1 ⁄ 2 inches, 36-inch scale [39]
      • G280A 1972-74 $300
      • G231S 1978-80 Spruce top, laminate mahogany back and sides, rosewood fretboard and bridge, nut width 2 inches - 51 mm 1977-81 $265.00 Solid spruce top, laminate rosewood back and sides, rosewood fretboard and bridge, Nato neck 658 mm scale
      • G-245Sii 1981-1985 $--.--
      • G-250S 1977-1981 $290 Solid spruce top/quarter sawn, real wood marquetry rosette, triple laminated veneer head, Ebony fingerboard, rosewood back and sides, rosewood bridge, transverse fan type bracing, concert scale size of 260mm with a 52mm nut width
      • G255S 1977-81 $360.00 Solid spruce top/quarter sawn, real wood marquetry rosette, triple laminated veneer head, Ebony fingerboard, rosewood back and sides, Jacaranda bridge, transverse fan type bracing, concert scale size of 260mm with a 52mm nut width
      • G255Sii 1981-85 $375.00 Solid cedar top
      • G-260S 1981-85 $xxx.xx Concert guitar laminated back/sides
      Steel and nylon string option guitars Edit
      • No. 30 (1950s)
      • No. 50 (1950s)
      • No. 70 (c. 1958)
      • No. 1 / No. 1A / No. 1B (c. 1958)
      • No. 2 (c. 1958 or 1961)
      • No. 4 (1950s/1960s [44] )
      • No. 8 (c. 1958)
      • No. 10A / No. 10B (before 1963)
      • No. 15 (before 1963)
      • No. 20 / No. 20A (before 1963/after 1963)
      • No. 40 (c. 1958)
      • No. 80 (before 1963)
      • S-20 [45]
      • S50 / S-50 (after 1963)
      • S70 / S-70 (after 1963)
      • No. 25 (c. 1964)
      • No. 45 (c. 1964)
      • No. 60 (c. 1964)
      • No. 85 (c. 1964)
      • No.100 (c. 1967)
      • No. 120 (c. 1964)
      • No. 300 (c. 1964)
      Steel-string acoustic guitars Edit
      • F-310
      • F-315
      • F-325
      • F-335 TBS
      • F-370
      • F-D01
      • FD01S
      • F-D02
      • FG-75 (c. 1969R2, slightly small (length 40 inches))
      • FG-75 1
      • FG-110 (c. 1968R, folk) [38]
      • FG-120F (1974/1975 size 00 Black Label)
      • FG-130 (1972G, folk)
      • FG-140 (c. 1969R, '68jumbo)
      • FG-150 / FG-150F (c. 1968R/1974B, folk) [38]
      • FG-151 / FG-151B (1976/1978, western)
      • FG-152 (1976, folk)
      • FG-160 (1972G, jumbo)
      • FG-170 (1972G, folk)
      • FG-180 (c. 1968R, '68jumbo) [38]
      • FG-180J (1974B, jumbo)
      • FG-200 / FG-200J (1972G/1974B, jumbo)
      • FG-200F (1974B, folk)
      • FG-200D (1981, yamaha western)
      • FG-201 / FG-201B (1976/1978, western)
      • FG-202 / FG-202B / FG-202D (1976/1978/1981, folk)
      • FG-220 (c. 1969R2, '68jumbo)
      • FG-230 (c. 1968R, 12strings '68jumbo) [38]
      • FG-240 (1972G, jumbo)
      • FG-250 / FG-250F (1972G/1974B, folk)
      • FG-250J (1974B, jumbo)
      • FG-250D / FG-250M / FG-250S (1981/1984, yamaha western, M = mahogany side & back, S = sunburst)
      • FG12-250 (1981, 12strings yamaha western)
      • FG-251 / FG-251B (1976/1978, western)
      • FG-252 / FG-252B / FG-252D / FG-252C (1976/1978/1981/1984, folk)
      • FG-260 (1972G, 12strings jumbo)
      • FG-280 (c. 1969R2/1972G, '68jumbo)
      • FG-300 (c. 1969R2, '68jumbo)
      • FG-300J (1974B, jumbo)
      • FG-300N (1974/1975, jumbo, N = jacaranda sides & back)
      • FG-300D / FG-300DE (1981, yamaha western, E = 2way piezo electric)
      • FG-300S / FG-300M (1981/1984, yamaha western, S = sunburst, M = mahogany side & back)
      • FG-12-300 (1974B, 12strings jumbo)
      • FG-301 / FG-301B (1976/1978, western)
      • FG12-301 / FG12-301B (1976/1980, 12strings western)
      • FG-302 / FG-302B / FG-302D / FG-302C (1976/1978/1981/1984, folk)
      • FG-303 / FG-303E (1981, semi-jumbo, E = 2way piezo electric)
      • FG-310
      • FG-325
      • FG-400
      • FG-400J (1974B, jumbo)
      • FG-400W (1974B, western style jumbo)
      • FG-400D / FG-400S / FG-400M (1981/1981/1984, yamaha western, S = sunburst, M = mahogany side & back)
      • FG-401
      • FG-401B (1978, western)
      • FG-401W / FG-401WB (1976/1980, western, western style)
      • FG-402 /FG-402B / FG-402C (1976/1978/1984, folk)
      • FG-403 (1981, semi-jumbo)
      • FG-410A
      • FG-411S
      • FG-412 BL
      • FG-420
      • FG-420A
      • FG-420-12A (12 String)
      • FG-430
      • FG-440 (1972G, folk)
      • FG-450 (1972G, jumbo)
      • FG-450E (1974B, western style jumbo, E = magnetic electric (J-160E style))
      • FG-455
      • FG-460-12 (12 string)
      • FG-461
      • FG-500 (c. 1969R, '68jumbo)
      • FG-500F (1974B, folk)
      • FG-500J (1974B, jumbo)
      • FG-500S (1981, yamaha western, S = sunburst)
      • FG-550 (c. 1969R, 12strings '68jumbo)
      • FG-580 (1972G2, new jumbo)
      • FG-600S (1972G2, folk, western style, S = sunburst)
      • FG-600J (1974B, HQ jumbo)
      • FG-612S (1981-1985, 12strings)
      • FG-630 (1972G2, 12strings new jumbo)
      • FG-700 (1972G2, new jumbo)
      • FG-700S (1974B, western style jumbo, S = sunburst)
      • FG-720S
      • FG-720S-12 (12strings)
      • FG-730S
      • FG-750S
      • FG-800J (1974B, HQ jumbo)
      • FG-12-800 (1974B, 12strings HQ jumbo)
      • FG-850 (1972G2, new jumbo)
      • FG-1000 (1972G2, new jumbo)
      • FG-1000J (1974B, HQ jumbo)
      • FG-1200J (1974B, HQ jumbo)
      • FG-1200S / FG-1200SN (1974, western style jumbo (Gibson Dove style), S = sunburst, SN = natural)
      • FG-1500 (1972G2, folk)
      • FG-2000 (1972G2, new jumbo)
      • FG-2500 (1972G2, 12strings new jumbo)
      • FX-170A (1984, yamaha jumbo, limited entry model)
      • L-5 / L-5S / L-5T (1976/1976/1984)
      • L-5A (1978-1984)
      • L-5ES / L-5E / L-5SE (1980/1981, yamaha western, ES = piezo electric, E/SE = 2way piezo electric)
      • L12-5 / L12-5A (1976/1980, 12strings yamaha western)
      • L-6 (1976, yamaha western)
      • L12-6 / L12-6E (1981, 12strings yamaha western, E = 2way piezo electric)
      • L-7S (1976, yamaha western, western style (Gibson Dove style))
      • L-8 / L-8S (1976/1981, yamaha western)
      • L12-8 / L12-8A (1976/1980, 12strings yamaha western)
      • L-10 / L-10S / L-10T (1976/1976/1984, yamaha western)
      • L-10ES / L-10E (1980/1981, yamaha western, ES = piezo electric + sunburst, E = 2way piezo electric + 4way controls (PMS II))
      • L-12S / L-12SN (1976, yamaha western, western style (Gibson Dove style), S = sunburst, SN = natural)
      • L-15 (1976/1980, yamaha western/yamaha jumbo)
      • L-21A (1984, jumbo, A = old finish)
      • L-31 / L-31A (1974/1978, HQ jumbo/yamaha jumbo, A = old finish)
      • L-41 (1980, yamaha western)
      • L12-50 Custom (1980, 12strings yamaha jumbo)
      • L-51 (1974, custom I/custom A)
      • L-52 / CJ-52 Custom (1974/1980, custom II/custom B/country jumbo (Gibson Everly Brothers style))
      • L-53 (1974, custom III/custom C)
      • L-53 Custom (1980, yamaha jumbo)
      • L-54 (1974, custom IV/custom D, western style (Gibson Dove style))
      • L-55 Custom (1980, yamaha jumbo)
      • LA-17 (1984)
      • LA-27 (1984)
      • LA-37 (1984)
      • LA12-37 (1984, 12strings)
      • LA-47 (1984)
      • LA-57 Custom (1984)
      • LJ6 (China)
      • LJ16 (China)
      • LJ26 (Japan)
      • LJ36 (Japan)
      • LL6, LLX6 (China, X = electric)
      • LL16, LLX16, LLX16C (China, X = electric, C = cutaway)
      • LL26, LLX26C (Japan, X = electric, C = cutaway)
      • LL36, LLX36C (Japan, X = electric, C = cutaway)
      • LS6 (China)
      • LS16 (China)
      • LS26 (Japan)
      • LS36 (Japan)
      • CJ-7 (1978–1983)
      • CJ-8XE (1981, Gibson Everly Brothers style, XE = 2way piezo electric)
      • CJ-10, CJ-10B (1978–1983, B = brown burst)
      • CJ-12 (1993–2007)
      • CJ-12P BL (1997–2007)
      • CJ-15 / CJ-15B (1978–1983, B = brown burst)
      • CJ-22 (1992–2007)
      • CJ-32 (1994–2009)
      • CJ-52 Custom (1980–1988, Gibson Everly Brothers style)
      • CP-300 (1978)
      • CP-400 (1978)
      • CP-500 (1978)
      • CWE-8 (c. 1984)
      • CWE-18 (1984, PMS V)
      • CWE-18C (1984, PMS IV, gut string)
      • CWE-28 (1984, PMS IV)
      • CWE-58 (1984, PMS IV)
      • N500 (1976, yamaha western)
      • N700 (1976, yamaha western)
      • N1000 (1976, yamaha western)
      • S-11 / S-11E (1980/1981, yamaha semi-jumbo, E = 2way piezo electric)
      • S-21 (1980, yamaha semi-jumbo)
      • S-51 Custom (1980, yamaha semi-jumbo)
      • SJ-180 (1981-1985, yamaha semi-jumbo) [46]
      • XS-16Black (1982, semi-jumbo)
      • XS-26E Black (1982, semi-jumbo, E = 2way piezo electric + 4way controls)
      • XS-56E Black (1982, semi-jumbo, E = 2way piezo electric + 4way controls (PMS II))

      Guitalele Edit

      Silent guitars Edit

      • SLG-100N
      • SLG-100S
      • SLG-110N
      • SLG-110S
      • SLG-130NW
      • SLG-200S
      • SLG-200N
      • SLG-200NW

      Electric-acoustic guitars Edit

      • 5A
      • APX series
      • CPX series
      • FAX
      • FGX/FJX
      • FX
      • LX
      • NTX

      Electric guitars Edit

      • AE-1200 (1978)
      • AE-1200S2 (1989)
      • AE-1200T (1979)
      • AE-1500 (1991)
      • AE-2000 (1978)
      • PAC412V
      • PAC612V
      • PAC812V
      • PAC904
      • PAC1221M
      • PAC1511MS Mike Sternsignature
      • RGX110
      • RGX120D
      • RGX121z
      • RGX211
      • RGX312
      • RGX420DZ
      • RGX421D
      • RGX512J
      • RGX721D
      • RGXA2
      • RGZ321P
      • SA-5 / SA-5B (1966)
      • SA-20 / SA-20B (1968, 12strings, B = pearl color) [38]
      • SA-30 / SA-30T (c. 1968, export model?) [38]
      • SA-50 / SA-50B (1967, tremolo, B = pearl or sycamore) [38]
      • SA-60 (1973)
      • SA-90 (1973)
      • SA-500 (2005, Art Deco f-holes)
      • SA-503 TVL Troy Van Leeuwensignature
      • SA-700 (1977)
      • SA-900 (1983)
      • SA-1000 (1977)
      • SA-1100 (1988)
      • SA-1200S (1972)
      • SA-1300 (1983)
      • SA-1800 / SA-1800L (1983, L = left hand)
      • SA-2000 / SA-2000S (1977/1979)
      • SA-2100II (1988)
      • SA-2500 (1983)
      • SAS-I / SAS-II / SAS-III (1988, small body) [47]
      • SAS-1500
      • SE-110
      • SE-150
      • SE-200
      • SE-203
      • SE-211
      • SE-250
      • SE-300 / SE-300H
      • SE-350 / SE-350H
      • SE-603M
      • SE-612 / SE-612A
      • SE-700HE (1985)
      • SE-700M
      • SE-903A
      • SE-1203 / SE-1203a
      • SE-1212 / SE-1212a
      • SE-1220 / SE-1220a
      • SF-400
      • SF-500 (1980)
      • SF550
      • SF-600
      • SF-700 (1977)
      • SF-1000 (1977)
      SG series (earlier) Edit
      • SG-40
      • SG-60 / SG-60T (c. 1973, German carved, T = tremolo) [# 2]
      • SG-80 (German carved, tone selector)
      SGV series Edit

      Asymmetrical double cutaway guitar based on earlier SG-2, 5/5A, 7/7A [see above], manufactured in early 2000s


      History of Suburbs

      Suburbs are not a modern concept, as this 539 BCE clay tablet letter from an early suburbanite to the king of Persia makes clear:

      Other early examples of suburbs include areas created for lower class citizens outside of Rome, Italy during the 1920s, streetcar suburbs in Montreal, Canada created during the late 1800s, and the picturesque Llewellyn Park, New Jersey, created in 1853.

      Henry Ford was a big reason why suburbs caught on the way they did. His innovative ideas for making cars cut manufacturing costs, reducing the retail price for customers. Now that an average family could afford a car, more people could go to and from home and work everyday. Additionally, the development of the Interstate Highway System further encouraged suburban growth.

      The government was another player that encouraged movement out of the city. Federal legislation made it cheaper for someone to construct a new home outside of the city than to improve upon a preexisting structure in the city. Loans and subsidies were also provided to those willing to move to new planned suburbs (usually wealthier white families).

      In 1934 the United States Congress created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), an organization intended to provide programs to insure mortgages. Poverty struck everyone's life during the Great Depression (beginning in 1929) and organizations like the FHA helped to ease the burden and stimulate growth.

      Rapid growth of suburbia characterized the post-World War II era for three chief reasons:

      • The economic boom following World War II
      • The need for housing returning veterans and baby boomers relatively cheaply
      • Whites fleeing the desegregation of urban cities brought on by the civil rights movement (the "White Flight")

      Some of the first and most famous suburbs in the post-war era were the Levittown developments in the Megalopolis.


      Bagley II DD- 185 - History

      Example Display Recognition:
      Actual Size: 8 1/2 x 11

      Issue Requirements
      You must submit the following:

      NOTICE
      This Display Recognition is available ONLY to authorized recipients who possess orders, or authorization form, or release documentation that confirms award eligibility. (See "Issue Requirements"). To obtain either a Display Medal or a Display Recognition for your authorized award you will be required to provide military-issued documentation authorizing your award. There are no exceptions.

      WARNING!
      You must NOT submit a military issued document or photocopy that:

      • has been altered in any way by you after
        the original's official issue
      • contains information or corrections or
        additions that you entered
      • lists awards or training you knowingly did not receive
      • contains highlighting, colorizing or other markings you entered

      Be advised that on request any knowingly fraudulent document sent by you will be released to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) that may result in prosecution and/or fine/imprisonment.

      Email Questions, or Phone: 1-562-422-4100 (Pacific Time Zone)

      You have four display types to choose from:
      Black & White (No Color)
      Heavy Bond Enclosure

      You may apply for your Display Recognition using a.

      ( * Upon reception of required documentation )

      Complete and MAIL this APPLICATION FORM.
      Don't forget to include an unaltered COPY of your DD-214 or other pre-arranged document(s).

      Telephone: 1-562-422-4100 (Pacific Time Zone)

      Copyright © The American War Library
      Military and Veteran Websites
      The G.I. Photograph Museum of Honor
      Locator Registry Applications
      Accessing The Worldwide Military Personnel Database

      Retro-active to 1941, The Combat Action Ribbon was established on February 17, 1969, by Secretary of the Navy John H. Chafee and announced by SECNAVNOTE 1650 of February 17, 1969. The Annual Defense Authorization Bill (Public Law 106-65) signed into law by President Clinton on October 5, 1999, authorized the Secretary of the Navy to award the Combat Action Ribbon to members of the Navy or Marine Corps who participated in combat during any period after December 6, 1941.

      The Combat Action Ribbon originally took effect on March 1, 1961 however, with the passage of Public Law 106-65 (cited above), award of the Combat Action Ribbon may now be made retroactive to December 7, 1941.

      NAVY AND USMC PERSONNEL: The Combat Action Ribbon is a personal decoration awarded to members of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard (when operating under the control of the Navy) in the grade of captain (or colonel in the Marine Corps) and below who have actively participated in ground or surface combat. Current Marine and Naval personnel who earned the Combat Infantryman Badge or Combat Medical Badge while a former member of the Army and now a Marine or Sailor may be authorized to wear the Combat Action Ribbon.

      ARMY PERSONNEL: Army and Air Force personnel may be authorized the Combat Action Ribbon by Naval or USMC commanders only when operating in direct support of naval personnel on a naval vessel or operating in combat or combat support within a Marine unit engaged against enemy forces. Wear of the CAR on the Army uniform must be approved by local Army commanders.

      The Combat Action Ribbon is worn after the Navy Achievement Medal and before the Navy Presidential Unit Citation.

      Because this ribbon is considered to be a personal decoration, additional awards are indicated by gold stars five-sixteenths of an inch in diameter (an additional star in silver of the same size denotes a sixth award).

      14. Combat Action Ribbon (CAR)

      a. Authorization. SECNAVNOTE 1650 of 17 February 1969.

      b. Eligibility Requirements

      (1) Awarded to members of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard (when the Coast Guard or units thereof operate under the control of the Navy) in the grade of captain/colonel and junior thereto, who have actively participated in ground or surface combat. Upon submission of evidence to their commanding officer, personnel who earned the Combat Infantryman Ribbon or Combat Medical Ribbon while a member of the U.S. Army may be authorized to wear the CAR.

      (2) The principal eligibility criterion is that the individual must have participated in a bona fide ground or surface combat fire-fight or action during which he/she was under enemy fire and his/her performance while under fire was satisfactory. Service in a combat area does not automatically entitle a service member to the CAR. The following amplifying remarks are furnished as guidance.

      (a) Personnel in riverine and coastal operations, assaults, patrols, sweeps, ambushes, convoys, amphibious landings, and similar activities who have participated in fire fights are eligible.

      (b) Personnel assigned to areas subjected to sustained mortar, missile, and artillery attacks actively participate in retaliatory or offensive actions are eligible.

      (c) Personnel in clandestine or special operations such as reconnaissance, SEAL teams, EOD teams, and Mine Countermeasures operations are eligible when the risk of enemy fire was great and was expected to be encountered.

      (d) Personnel aboard a ship are eligible when the safety of the ship and the crew were endangered by enemy attack, such as a ship hit by a mine or a ship engaged by shore, surface, air or sub-surface elements.

      (e) Personnel eligible for the award of the Purple Heart would not necessarily qualify for the Combat Action Ribbon.

      (f) Personnel serving in peacekeeping missions, if not eligible by the criteria cited above, are eligible to receive the award when all of the following criteria are met:

      - the member was subject to hostile, direct fire,

      - based on the mission and the tactical situation, not returning fire was the best course of action, and

      - the member was in compliance with the rules of engagement and

      his orders by not returning fire.

      (g) The CAR will not be awarded to personnel for aerial combat since the Strike/Flight Air Medal provides recognition for aerial combat exposure however, a pilot or crewmember forced to escape or evade after being forced down could be eligible for the award.

      (h) Under Public Law 106-55, the CAR may be awarded retroactively to 07Dec41.

      c. Operations. An individual, whose eligibility has been established in combat in any of the following listed operations is authorized the award of the CAR. Only one award per operation is authorized. The listing is not all inclusive as the CAR has been awarded in minor operations and for specific actions. Subsequent awards will be indicated by the use of a Gold Star on the ribbon:

        (a) COMNAVSPECWAR Task Unit Tango - 22Sep87
        (b) USS SAMUEL B. ROBERTS (FFG 58) - 14Apr88
        (c) Operation PRAYING MANTIS - 18Apr88
          SAG BRAVO
          COMDESRON NINE STAFF embarked on (DD 976)
          USS MERRILL (DD 976)
          HSL-35 DET 1
          USS LYNDE MCCORMICK (DDG 8)
          USS TRENTON (LPD 14)
          CONTINGENCY MAGTF 2-88
          HSL 44, DET 5
          SAG CHARLIE
          USS WAINWRIGHT (CG 28)
          USS BAGLEY (FF 1069)
          HSL-35, DET 7
          USS SIMPSON (FFG 56)
          HSL-42, DET 10
          COMMANDER, NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE TASK
          GROUP MIDDLE EAST FORCE
          SEAL TEAM TWO, THIRD PLATOON
          SAG DELTA
          COMDESRON TWENTY-TWO
          USS JACK WILLIAMS (FFG 24)
          HSL-32, DET 2
          USS JOSEPH STRAUSS (DDG 16)
          USS O'BRIEN (DD 975)
          HSL-33, DET 2
          CO, SPEC BOAT UNIT TWELVE
          SEAL TEAM 5, PLATOON C
          (a) The Secretary of the Navy approved the CAR as an exception to policy for the following ships that operated north of 28.90N and west of 49.90E from 17Jan91 to 28Feb91:
            USS ADROIT (MSO 509) USS AVENGER (MCM 1)
            USS BEAUFORT (ATS 2) USS BUNKER HILL (CG 52)
            USS CARON (DD 970) USS CURTS (FFG 38)
            USS DURHAM (LKA 114) USS FIFE (DD 991)
            USS FORD (FFG 54) USS FORT MCHENRY (LSD 43)
            USS PAUL F. FOSTER (DD 964) USS HAWES (FFG 53)
            USNS HASSAYAMPA (T-AO 145) USS HORNE (CG 30)
            USS IMPERVIOUS (MSO 449) USS JARRETT (FFG 33)
            USS KIDD (DDG 993) USS LASALLE (AGF 3)
            USS LEADER (MSO 490) USS LEFTWICH (DD 984)
            USS MACDONOUGH (DDG 39) USS MCINERNEY (FFG 8)
            USS MISSOURI (BB 63) USS MOBILE BAY (CG 53)
            USS NASSAU (LHA 4) USS NIAGARA FALLS (AFS 3)
            USS NICHOLAS (FFG 47) USS OKINAWA (LPH 3)
            USS OLDENDORF (DD 972) USNS PASSUMPSIC (T-AO 107
            USS PORTLAND (LSD 37) USS PRINCETON (CG 59)
            USS RALEIGH (LPD 1) USS TRIPOLI (LPH 10)
            USS VREELAND (FF 1068) USS WISCONSIN (BB 64)
            USS WORDEN (CG 18)
            USNS COMFORT (T-AH 20) 26Feb91
            USS GUAM (LPH 9) 25-26Feb91
            USS IWO JIMA (LPH 2) 26Feb91
            USS OGDEN (LPD 5) 25-26Feb91
            USS MISSOURI (BB 63) 12Feb91 and 25Feb91 VC-6 Detachment
            EODMU Detachments
            USS RICHMOND K. TURNER (CG 20) 19-24Feb91
            USS VALLEY FORGE (CG 50) 16-28 February 1991
            USS LEADER (MSO 490) 23Mar91

          a. Authorization. SECNAVNOTE 1650 of 17 February 1969.

          b. Eligibility Requirements

          (1) Awarded to members of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard (when the Coast Guard, or units thereof, operate under the control of the Navy) in the grade of captain/colonel and junior thereto, who have actively participated in ground or surface combat.

          (2) The principal eligibility criterion is, regardless of military occupational specialty or rating, the individual must have rendered satisfactory performance under enemy fire while actively participating in a ground or surface engagement. Neither service in a combat area nor being awarded the Purple Heart Medal automatically makes a service member eligible for the Combat Action Ribbon (CR). The following amplifying guidance is provided: SECNAVINST 1650.1H AUG 2 2 2006

          (a) Direct exposure to the detonation of an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) used by an enemy, with or without the immediate presence of enemy forces, constitutes active participation in a ground or surface engagement. Eligibility under this criterion is retroactive to 7 October 2001.

          (b) Personnel who serve in clandestine or special operations, who by the nature of their mission, are restricted in their ability to return fire, and who are operating in conditions where the risk of enemy fire was great and expected to be encountered, may be eligible for the CR.

          (c) The CR will not be awarded to personnel for aerial combat, since the Strike/

          light Air Medal provides recognition for aerial combat exposure however, a pilot or crewmember forced to escape or evade, after being forced down, may be eligible for the award.

          (d) Current DON personnel who were formerly in the U.S. Army and earned the Combat Infantryman Badge or Combat Medical Badge, upon submission of official military documentation to their commanding officer, may be authorized to wear the CR.

          (e) Under Public Law 106-65, the CR may be awarded retroactively to 7 December 1941. See Chapter 8 for information regarding retroactive eligibility determinations.

          c. Eligible Operations. SECNAV, or his designee, determines which operations meet the criteria for this award. Appendix E to this chapter lists the operations for which award of the CR has been authorized. An individual, whose eligibility has been established in combat in any of the operations listed in Appendix E, may be awarded the CR. Only one award per operation is authorized. The listing is not all inclusive, as the CR has been awarded in minor operations, as well as for - specific actions. Chapter 8 contains information regarding requests for eligibility determinations for personnel no longer on active duty.


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          Thomas Cromwell – Facts & Biography Information

          born c.1485 in Putney
          executed 28 July 1540 in London
          “A good household manager, but not fit to meddle in the affairs of kings.”
          May 1538, Henry VIII describes Cromwell to the French ambassador

          Thomas Cromwell Biography

          Thomas Cromwell was as great a statesman as England has ever seen and, in his decade of power, permanently changed the course of English history. Unlike his mentor, Cardinal Wolsey, Cromwell was not a priest or a papist. He was a lawyer determined to impose his own character – methodical, detached, and calculating – upon government.

          Cromwell wanted government to be effective and efficient to achieve this, he had to end the chaos of feudal privilege and ill-defined jurisdictions. He was blessed with a logical mind in an age sadly devoid of them. And unlike his royal master, he did not let his emotions interfere with his position. He was the ideal statesman for Tudor England and, just months after his execution in 1540, Henry VIII was bemoaning his loss.

          Cromwell was introduced to government service as a secretary for Cardinal Wolsey. His abilities won him the older man’s respect and soon Cromwell was his most trusted servant and principal secretary. But Cromwell managed to distance himself from Wolsey immediately after the Cardinal fell from grace and soon had taken his place as Henry’s most valuable advisor. Before entering Wolsey’s service, Cromwell lived an adventurous life. His father had been a brewer and blacksmith known for permanent drunkenness and illegal activities. From this inauspicious beginning, his son went on to indulge his curiosity and practical nature by traveling through Europe. Over the course of several years, he was a soldier in Europe, a banker in Italy, clerk in the Netherlands, and a lawyer in London. Like so many ambitious men, he was in Wolsey’s service in the mid-1520s. His most important work was the suppression of 29 religious houses whose monies Wolsey used to endow colleges at Ipswich and Oxford. When Wolsey fell from grace in 1529, Cromwell was hurriedly elected burgess for Taunton so he could remain in government service.

          There were striking similarities between the two men – both managed to remain favorites of the mercurial Henry VIII for years both were despised by the older nobility who coveted their influence with the king both sought to reform the creaky medieval bureaucracy of Tudor government both were highly intelligent and well-versed in international affairs. And both, ultimately, fell from Henry’s favor with spectacular speed. In the end, the king preferred to listen to the old nobility.

          But Cromwell and Wolsey were also markedly different in many ways. Cromwell was the man responsible for the Henrician reformation while Wolsey fell because he served two masters, the king of England and the Pope. Though Henry had ejected Rome from his nation, he still practiced the Roman Catholic religion. The king’s religious tendencies were never reformist and many historians have made the mistake of painting him as one of the first Protestant kings. Henry was never a Protestant and he wrote treatises vilifying Martin Luther for which he was titled ‘Defender of the Faith’ by the Pope. Rather, he was an opportunist who disliked papal authority and interference in his realm and wanted some of the vast wealth the English church possessed. For Henry, often desperately short of money, it was near-blasphemy for his subjects to pay taxes directly to Rome he wanted the money for his government. He also wanted an annulment from a devoutly Catholic wife, Katharine of Aragon, and when the Pope, held hostage by the Holy Roman Emperor, refused to rule in his favor, he found it most expedient to simply disregard the papacy. But throughout it all, Henry was unaware of the forces he had unleashed when he declared himself head of the English church. Trained for the church as a child, he remained staunchly Catholic for his entire life though the Catholic church deemed him a heretic.

          a discussion of the Henrician reformation

          It is important to remember that during Henry’s reign, at least half of his subjects were under the age of eighteen. Henry’s court swarmed with young people – pages, scullery maids, and the like. English culture celebrated youth tournaments, hunts, glorious warfare were all the province of the young and strong. And while Henry was young, he joined these events with a gusto sadly lacking in his father or son. But time does not stop, not even for a despotic monarch determined to have his way in all things. During his ‘great matter’, Henry was in his thirties and changing from ‘Bluff King Hal’ into an overweight and balding hypochondriac. He had rid himself of Rome to gain wealth and a son. He gained both and, once he had, continually toyed with the idea of making peace with the pope. He didn’t relish excommunication and it is likely that he persuaded himself that he wasn’t disobeying Christ’s vicar but rather the Emperor’s puppet.

          But he misjudged the mood of his people, particularly his nobles. Educated and by nature inquisitive and acquisitive, the new Protestant teachings intrigued them they also sought the vast monastic lands which Henry planned to sell. This was the paradox of the Henrician reformation. It was motivated by greed and genuine religious turmoil. As time passed, the new generation of nobles were Protestant because it was expedient and philosophically appealing. And with each year, more Englishmen were born who were further and further away from the old days of Roman domination. Henry, in his forties, could remember the papist ways but, as the years passed, fewer and fewer of his subjects did.

          In terms of the practical effect the reformation had on everyday Englishmen, the situation is more difficult to gauge. Unlike the wealthy noblemen, they couldn’t bid on the seized monastic properties. And in many towns and villages, the parish church was the community center, where births, weddings, and deaths were officiated over by a priest. But they undoubtedly enjoyed not paying their tax to Rome. Once again, a paradox emerged – an excommunicated nation which found itself torn between loyalty to the sovereign and loyalty to the papacy. Also, since Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn could only be recognized if one accepted his annulment from Katharine – which in itself meant a rejection of papal authority – and it was treason to not recognize his marriage to Anne, then many people were swayed by the threat of execution. In other words, accept Henry’s decisions or die. Of course, I cannot discuss all aspects of the reformation at this site I recommend L.B. Smith’s Henry VIII which studies Henry’s own theological beliefs.

          There was opposition to the reformation which probably had more to do with the attendant loss of independence in north England. In 1536, a northern uprising which came to be called the Pilgrimage of Grace, gathered over 40,000 men and marched through England. It eventually destroyed itself by internal division and lack of clear purpose but one of the rebels’ demands was a warning for Cromwell – they want their king to be advised by noble councilors who understand the people’s wishes, not common men like Cromwell. Henry was angry at their presumption – how dare his ignorant subjects rebel and then tell him how to run the country! – but he was persuaded to show mercy and pardon those involved. And he continued to listen to Cromwell.

          The Pilgrimage of Grace was largely motivated not by religious concerns but by Cromwell’s determination to dissolve the monasteries and improve the royal tax collecting methods. For example, the movement began in Louth, in Lincolnshire, and began with the murder of two tax collectors, one of whom was hanged and the other sewn into a sack and thrown to a pack of hungry dogs!

          So the common people might grumble somewhat but they were ultimately more influenced by practical matters. Had Henry’s excommunication been followed by a terrible harvest or bad weather, it may have been otherwise. During his daughter Mary’s reign, such signs were taken to mean God was angry with her for attempting to reinstate Catholicism. But not only did Henry enjoy good weather, he had a brilliant servant. Cromwell was the one who gave force to Henry’s grand declarations. The king declared that Rome had no authority in England and Cromwell instituted the reforms which would make it so. The king declared that all monastic lands were forfeit and Cromwell set out to close the monasteries, assess their value, and sell them to the highest bidder. For a decade, this partnership worked marvelously.

          Also, Henry and Cromwell both recognized a fundamental truth of the English people the government could do what it liked as long as traditional religious views were not upset too much. Certainly, Henry did not upset his own. The name of the pope was omitted in their prayers but not much else. Henry’s break with Rome was really a legal reformation rather than one of real religious content. England practiced Catholicism without a pope and, in his place, was their king. This situation suited Cromwell. Like many, he recognized that the Church had lost its way, remaining a ponderous medieval institution concerned with wealth and influence. But Europe was no longer medieval countries were becoming nation-states, patriotic and immune to the cultural unity which Rome promoted. The pope envisioned a collection of nations joined beneath the cloak of Christendom with him at its head but, particularly in xenophobic England, there were mutterings that the church was dominated by other nations. Also, the church claimed authority over its subjects no priest or cleric could be tried by their sovereign nation. They would answer only to Rome. This problem had angered Henry II centuries before and resulted in Thomas Becket’s murder. In Henry’s time, it had grown worse. Also, as king, he believed himself ruler of all his subjects, priest and commoner alike.

          One must also mention the corruption of the church, sadly evident to everyone. Certainly there were Godly men who struggled to enforce the tenets of their faith. But there were also bishops and cardinals more interested in business and finance than theology. The church preached that the surest path to heaven was through good works, particularly at a monastery or abbey, but every Englishmen knew that only the wealthy could afford to endow or board at them. Furthermore, an increasing number of churchmen were absent from their posts. Cardinal Wolsey embodied this avaricious streak he was bishop, archbishop, abbot, and cardinal yet the affairs of state kept him from his duties. Instead of tending to his flock, he tended to his purse. He sired illegitimate children and collected nearly 50,000 pds a year from his vast holdings.

          Wolsey represented the church as it had become certainly such abuses may not have turned most Englishmen from their faith. But when confronted with the forces of Protestantism, the church found precious few willing to die for their beliefs. After all, why would anyone die for a faith they didn’t respect? When the king styled himself head of the church, many were perhaps relieved. Henry made no claim to a holy life, not like the churchman Wolsey he also was shrewd enough to endow his monarchy with papal apparatus. From the 1530s on, the Tudor dynasty was even more divine and the machinery of state could enforce its divinity.

          Cromwell’s revolution in government

          Cromwell’s rise to power was extraordinary and occurred just when Henry needed a minister of great administrative imagination and genius, uninterested in the squabbles of his council and determined to empower the machinery of state. Cromwell entered royal service in early 1530 and, from then on, rose rapidly. In late 1530 he was sworn into the King’s Council and, just a year later, began to attract unfavorable attention from Wolsey’s old rivals. These were Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk, and Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk. Gardiner had worked with Wolsey but, like Norfolk and Suffolk, viewed the Cardinal’s fall as a chance to take his place. From 1529 to about 1533, they enjoyed the king’s confidence even as Cromwell rose to overtake them all. His career progressed as follows:

          1531 – member of the privy council
          1532 – Master of Court of Wards and Master of Jewel House
          1533 – Chancellor of the Exchequer
          1534 – King’s Secretary and Master of the Rolls
          1535 – Vicar-General
          1536 – Lord Privy Seal and Baron Cromwell of Oakham
          1537 – Knight of the Garter and Dean of Wells
          1539 – Lord Great Chamberlain
          1540 – created Earl of Essex

          As the above list shows, Henry never forgot the fallen Wolsey. He had heaped honors upon him with extravagant generosity and had written to the pope recommending religious promotion. In the end, Henry believed himself betrayed. Not only had Wolsey accumulated obscene wealth, but he had grown arrogant and eventually treasonous. And so Cromwell, despite his years of diligence and genius, was eventually rewarded with an earldom but only a short time before his execution.

          His influence upon the 1530s, one of the most influential and vital decades in English history, was enormous. One needs only to study the 1540s to realize how the loss of Cromwell affected Tudor government. He also came to power during Anne Boleyn’s ascendancy. It was a symbolic changing of the guard – the old Katharine of Aragon thrust aside for the young, ambitious Anne Boleyn and Wolsey disgraced and replaced by his protégé Cromwell. Cromwell supported Anne until she, like Wolsey, became a liability. Among his immediate accomplishments were the following:

          1 – the dissolution of the monasteries and establishment of the royal supremacy
          2 – founded the ministries of Augmentations and First Fruits to handle income from the dissolution
          3 – founded the two courts of Wards and Surveyors which allowed more efficient taxation and leasing
          4 – politically integrated the kingdom by extending sovereign authority into northern England, Wales & Ireland (actions which angered the great feudal lords)
          5 – used the power of that relatively new invention, the printing-press and thus spearheaded the first propaganda campaign in English history.

          In the 1530s, he had instituted reforms of the English government which earned enmity from the nobility. Cromwell recognized the basic inefficiency of feudal government and, from it, struggled to create a more logical system. Instead of offices held solely because of birth, he wanted trained servants with expertise in their field. He built a bureaucracy of professionals outside the royal household. He began the first era of parliamentary control of England, using the institution to dissolve the monasteries which made up a quarter of all arable land and validate his other decisions.

          From the above list, one will note that most of the ‘accomplishments’ were motivated by financial need. Like his predecessors in government ministry, Cromwell needed to provide secure and regular income. This alone necessitated an assault on the church’s wealth. Cromwell also developed a novel, and very unpopular idea – in the past, taxes were created to support warfare in 1534, he developed a new tax. It’s basis? The king’s maintenance of peace. These measures did not help his reputation but, by 1547, had brought nearly 2,000,000 pounds to Henry’s treasury. Of course, Henry would use the entire windfall to finance his increasingly complicated foreign policy. At the time of Henry’s death, all the wealth Cromwell had accumulated was gone and Edward VI was left with debased currency and massive debts.

          In 1534, however, Henry was prepared to reap the benefits of his new anti-clerical policies. He had appointed his friend Thomas Cranmer to the venerable and powerful position of Archbishop of Canterbury. Cranmer was like Cromwell in many ways – both owed their rise to prominence entirely to Henry’s mercurial favor both came from humble backgrounds both were despised by the traditional nobility. Cranmer had come to Henry’s attention by first suggesting a solution to the divorce problem – petition learned churchmen for their opinion, assuming they agreed with Henry. Like Cromwell, Cranmer benefited directly from the fall of Katharine of Aragon and the Imperial alliance and the rise of Anne Boleyn and her Norfolk relations. Henry’s midlife crisis provided fertile ground for ambitious men. Cranmer and Cromwell liked one another and became friends, though Cranmer was careful to distance himself once Cromwell’s ruin was assured.

          In 1535, Henry appointed Cromwell Vicar General and, over the next five years, the honors increased – Lord Privy Seal, titled Baron Cromwell of Oakham, Knight of the Garter and Dean of Wells, and finally Lord Great Chancellor and ennoblement as Earl of Essex. The last was Cromwell’s greatest ambition and long before justified by his superior service to the crown. During the accumulation of these honors, however, Cromwell began to recognize the flaws in his success.

          First, he had accompanied Anne Boleyn on her rise to power yet, in 1536, he helped engineer her disgrace and execution on charges of adultery, incest, and witchcraft. Why? Cromwell recognized Henry’s dissatisfaction with the marriage – after several years, Anne’s sharp tongue had offended many and, even worse, she had not produced a male heir. Furthermore, Henry had become infatuated with Anne’s lady-in-waiting, Mistress Jane Seymour. Tiring of his wife, he wanted to be rid of her. Divorce was only briefly considered before being pushed aside. As he had with Katharine of Aragon, Henry became convinced his marriage was invalid, only this time because of adultery, and he retained his absolute conviction in her guilt even as he truly believed his and Katharine’s marriage was invalid. To rid himself of Anne, he turned to the ever-ready Cromwell. Soon enough, Anne was on trial with her brother and two male servants. They were all executed, despite spirited defenses and the widely-held belief that it was judicial murder.

          Cromwell betrayed his former patron because she no longer held the king’s favor. In the rough world of Tudor politics, friendships were lost in the struggle for prestige and survival. And now Cromwell turned to Mistress Jane Seymour and her relatively obscure family for support. The Seymours, however, never warmed to Cromwell as had the Boleyns, largely because they didn’t trust him or his influence over the king. Cromwell was careful to press Jane’s cause to the king though Henry needed little urging. Just days after Anne Boleyn’s execution, Jane Seymour became his third wife, dying eighteen months later after delivering the longed-for son, Prince Edward. Cromwell busied himself with auctioning off church properties to various noblemen and further reforming the archaic machinery of Tudor government. In doing so, he continued to ignore Henry’s council of noble peers. When the council did meet, Cromwell dominated the meetings and disregarded most suggestions. To his credit, he was right on most counts the nobility was quite distanced from the changing nature of government. They were fiercely protective of their own ‘inalienable’ rights as landowners and peers and notoriously difficult when these rights were impugned (this conflict between the nobility and monarchy was centuries-old – simply remember the 13th century Magna Carta, when the nobles forced King John I to recognize their ‘natural’ rights.)

          As discussed earlier, the nobility resented Cromwell’s influence with the king and his pro-monarchy, anti-nobility policy. And while many of the nobles benefited from the sale of clerical lands, many others had relatives dedicated to religious service. Also, reverence for the church and its servants was as deeply-held as reverence for the monarchy. Henry’s attacks upon the church struck many as unnatural and wrong since they could not turn on the king, they turned on Cromwell and blamed him for every unpopular policy. Henry VIII, who relished his popularity, allowed his faithful servant to be impugned. Thus, Henry could meet with his nobles, listen to their complaints, and even agree with them since many were his dearest friends. The king remained popular while his chief minister became increasingly despised and isolated. It is worth noting that one of Cromwell’s friends, Richard Moryson, argued that merit and not birth should be the only qualification for entry into the privy council. Moryson eventually became a member himself.

          It is also important to note that years of listening to anti-Cromwell gossip eventually affected Henry. Even the king did not exist in a vacuum and, as his temper became increasingly erratic, he was easily swayed by inflamed opinion. Thus, Cromwell suffered from a lapse in Henry’s temper and one which the king almost immediately regretted. Chief among Cromwell’s enemies were the highest nobles in the land, once Wolsey’s great enemies and led by the dukes of Suffolk and Norfolk. These men had pushed Wolsey from favor after years of effort and were determined to do the same to his protégé. The perfect opportunity arrived when Queen Jane died two weeks after childbirth, in October 1537. Henry VIII was genuinely bereaved at her death but almost immediately the search began for a new queen. After all, Jane had delivered a son but one male heir was not enough in the sixteenth century. Henry’s council began to search for a new consort with the king’s enthusiastic support.

          For Cromwell, this was a chance to further extend his influence while thwarting the English nobility. Henry’s second and third wives had been English noblewomen whose families directly profited from their rise to power. The influence of these families naturally troubled Cromwell. As their influence rose, his own suffered – so he was opposed to the idea of another English wife. Also, as an intelligent statesman, he recognized the diplomatic power of royal marriages. Henry’s troublesome foreign policy could be soothed if he chose a foreign wife – a princess or duchess of one of the great European families. Kings were meant to marry other royalty and Cromwell immediately searched for possible candidates.

          While searching, he was careful to avoid Catholic candidates. Cromwell’s rise to power was directly connected to the fall of Catholicism in England and he wanted to keep England on the path of Protestantism. Therefore, he sought a Protestant ally for Henry VIII. Naturally, his gaze turned to the Protestant states of Germany, birthplace of the Lutheran revolution. Meanwhile, Henry VIII was concerned with more aesthetic matters, sending artists (most famously, Hans Holbein the Younger) to France and Milan to paint potential brides. Among those painted was Christina, Duchess of Milan and niece of the Holy Roman Emperor she famously remarked that she would be happy to marry Henry – if she had two heads! Henry also considered Marie de Guise, a widowed cousin of the French king. Marie, however, chose to marry Henry’s nephew, James V of Scotland, thus creating a French-Scottish alliance along Henry’s troublesome northern border. Their only surviving child is famous in history as the tragic Mary Queen of Scots.

          Cromwell was well aware that if France and the Holy Roman Empire ended hostilities, as seemed likely, England would be left out in the diplomatic cold. He was quite happy when the French and Imperial marriage negotiations fell apart. But as the search wound on, Henry became increasingly desperate for a wife. No doubt he was lonely also, his court needed a queen to be complete. A king was not meant to be a bachelor, as every European monarch knew. Finally, Cromwell found a Protestant ally with two available sisters – the Duke of Cleves, whose lands were strategically located and wealthy. He had two sisters not yet wed called Anne and Amelia. As the eldest, Anne was chosen as the possible bride and Holbein immediately went to Cleves to paint her portrait. This painting would become of paramount importance in the coming year. Henry was determined to have a beautiful wife and specifically asked his various ambassadors probing questions – does Marie de Guise have wide hips for childbearing? is Christina of Milan pock-marked? does Anne of Cleves play the lute? Holbein’s famous portrait of Anne cannot be adequately judged in our time after all, standards of beauty have changed. However, it is amusing to note that she – so maligned in her own time as the ugliest of Henry’s wives – is the most attractive by twentieth-century standards.

          Holbein’s portrait showed a perfectly attractive young woman – and, on that basis, Cromwell was able to secure the marriage alliance with a Protestant ally. Anne set sail for England, little realizing what lay ahead. The king, meanwhile, was ecstatic that after almost three years as a widower he would be a husband again, able to play one of his favorite roles. The entire country was thrilled at the news, in fact, and after Anne arrived, Cromwell finally secured his greatest ambition – an earldom. He was titled earl of Essex by Henry VIII on 18 April 1540 after the marriage treaty was finalized.

          During this time, he also attempted to placate the nobility by redistributing lands to the great magnates, providing them with near-autonomous controls of great sections of land. For example, the duke of Suffolk traded East Anglian lands for lands in Lincolnshire – the duke of Norfolk already held lands in Anglia while Lincolnshire needed a strong leader. Earlier, Cromwell had attempted to befriend Henry’s oldest child, the stubbornly Catholic Princess Mary. She rebuffed his attention, largely on religious grounds.

          Two years of marriage-brokering were often interrupted by rumors of rebellion. The Pilgrimage of Grace had made Henry more sensitive to popular sentiment. While Cromwell searched for a wife, rumors spread that the king planned new taxes. Also, the last remnants of the legitimate Plantagenet line – the Nevilles, Poles, and Courtenays – were suspected of encouraging rebellionn and Henry used this convenient excuse to order more executions. But popular unrest needed to be assuaged in some manner so Cromwell engineered the passing of the Six Articles at Parliament in April 1539. These articles attempted to stamp a more conservative gloss on the Henrician reformation, thus placating conservative European nobles – and the Catholic nations in Europe, now forced to concede Henry was not so great a heretic after all. It was a supreme example of Cromwell’s talent for diffusing domestic tension. In effect, it was all talk and no action it didn’t alter the course of the reformation one bit.

          Finally, on 6 October 1539, the marriage treaty with Cleves was finalized just two months after Holbein delivered his portrait. Princess Anne, once betrothed to the duke of Lorraine, was now destined to be queen of England. It was the fulfillment of Cromwell’s domestic and foreign policies. On 11 December, Anne was at Calais waiting for a favorable wind to carry her to Dover. She was there for almost two weeks while Henry waited at Greenwich. Finally, on 27 December she landed at Deal and then traveled to Dover and Canterbury before arriving at Rochester on 1 January 1540. Henry, desperate to see his bride in person, rushed in disguise to meet her ‘to thus nourish love’, he told Cromwell. Their comical first meeting is described at the Primary Sources section.

          The meeting was an unmitigated disaster and the beginning of Cromwell’s end. The New Year gifts Henry had brought for Anne were delivered the next day by a courier with a brief note of welcome. ‘I am ashamed that men have so praised her as they have done, and I like her not’, the king said ominously he told Cromwell that Anne was ‘nothing so well as she was spoken of’ and, if he had known the truth of her appearance, she would never have come to England. The next day, his betrothed arrived in Greenwich and the marriage, scheduled for that day, was delayed for two days while Henry sought escape. But there was none to be had – the Holy Roman Emperor was in Paris meeting with the French king and Henry, locked out by those two great powers, could not risk offending the German princes who approved the union with Anne. They were, after all, his only allies at the moment. So Anne was not sent back and Henry moaned that he must ‘put my neck in the yoke’. He wrote to Cromwell, ‘My lord, if it were not to satisfy the world and my realm, I would not do that I must do this day for none earthly thing’.

          Poor Anne of Cleves – barely able to speak English, in a foreign land, and despised by her intended husband! The confused woman was led to a private marriage ceremony at Greenwich and, then, to her equally humiliating marriage-bed. The union was not consummated, a subject upon which Henry never wavered. He spoke openly of how disgusted he was by Anne’s appearance ‘struck to the heart’ by distaste, he ‘left her as good a maid as he found her’. They lay together for the entire length of their marriage but were never physically intimate. After a few months had passed, the French-Imperial alliance showed signs of cooling and Henry’s natural boldness had returned. He wanted out of this fourth marriage and told Cromwell to arrange it.

          What were Cromwell’s options? There were two ways to nullify the marriage (in essence, arrange a divorce) – Henry had not consented to the marriage (this was proved by his failure to consummate it) and Anne had not consented to the marriage (this was proved by Anne’s precontract to the duke of Lorraine.) Henry had long been concerned with the latter problem – but had been assured that the contract was completely repudiated. Still, the day before his marriage to Anne, he called the Clevian ambassadors to him and raised the issue. They were astonished, and rightly so, and offered to remain as prisoners in England until the formal repudiation papers were delivered from Cleves. Meanwhile, Thomas Cranmer told the king that Anne could simply swear that the betrothal had been repudiated – no official documents were necessary. His friend Cromwell ‘travailed on him [Henry] to pass the matter over’ he hoped that once Henry was married to Anne, the king would resign himself to the marriage.

          But instead Henry turned to the precontract when his distaste could not be overcome. On 9 July, Parliament declared the marriage null and void and Anne, surprising Henry and the court, was content to be called ‘sister’ and receive a handsome income and household in England. She had no desire to return to Cleves, where she would remain under her brother’s thumb and perhaps married again. It is also possible she found Henry as unattractive as he found her. Henry was so pleased with this unexpected docility that he gave her status second only to his daughters, Princesses Mary and Elizabeth, both of whom came to befriend Anne. Anne’s letter to Henry, in which she accepts the dissolution of their marriage, can be read at ‘Letters of the Six Wives of Henry VIII’.

          However, the time had come to search for a convenient scapegoat – the person responsible for the disastrous union. Henry railed against his ambassadors who had so misled him with descriptions of her beauty – though, in truth, the ambassador’s descriptions had been honest. It was soon alleged that Cromwell had kept them from the king, for fear of discouraging the union. Now, Cromwell was arrested on 10 June 1540, at 3pm on a Saturday, while at a Privy Council meeting. This was a full month before the marriage was nullified. Henry and Cromwell’s enemies were in the midst of finding scapegoats for the marriage, while not yet assured of its outcome. Henry, in a fit of temper and pique, complained bitterly that his minister had betrayed him while trying to further his own influence the nobility were only too happy to encourage such thoughts. They urged Henry to arrest Cromwell and teach the upstart his final lesson – namely, that it does not pay to mislead a king.

          So the captain of the guard arrived at the council chamber and arrested Cromwell, while a table of his enemies looked on. The moment the guard entered the room, Cromwell recognized the danger – and threw his hat upon the table in rage. Norfolk and Southampton stripped his decorations from his robe of state and Cromwell was then escorted to a barge – and, then, the Tower of London. The events which follow are far from clear – Cromwell’s fall and execution are among the most mysterious events of Henry VIII’s reign and cannot be easily understood. I have yet to read a history which offers an adequate explanation. In truth, Henry became increasingly mercurial and tempermental in his later years, and Cromwell was just one of many victims of the king’s ever-changing whims.

          First, if Cromwell fell from favor because of the Cleves marriage, as most believe, why did Henry title him earl of Essex in April 1540 – months after the marriage had been finalized and while negotiations for divorce were underway? Second, if Cromwell was executed because his government policies angered the king, as has been alleged, why did Henry give his voluntary approval to all of Cromwell’s legislation? Third, is his enemies were in the ascendancy, why had Henry only recently shown the duke of Norfolk (Cromwell’s great enemy) open favor? After all, Norfolk had just been sent abroad on diplomatic work – away from the king.

          What are we left with? The charges eventually listed in Cromwell’s attainder did not list the above – Cromwell was not accused of misleading Henry on matters of policy, he was not held responsible for the disastrous marriage, and he was not charged with leading England into an unwanted Lutheran alliance. Instead, he was charged with selling export licenses illegally, granting passports and commissions without royal knowledge, freeing people suspected of treason and – of course – that he, base-born and ignoble, had usuurped and deliberately misused royal power. Most significantly, however, he was charged with heresy – this charge was the bulk of his attaindder and apparently swayed Henry decisively. Norfolk, allied with the Catholic bishops Cromwell had forced from power, engineered this charge. Cromwell, they charged, had encouraged and spread heretical literature, allowed heretics to preach, released them from prison, and allied himself against their enemies. Significantly, it was reported that in March 1539 Cromwell said that, even if Henry turned from Protestantism, ‘yet I would not turn, and if the king did turn, and all his people, I would fight in this field in mine own person, with my sword in my hand against him and all other’. That was treason.

          Shortly after his arrest, incriminating letters to Lutherans were found in Cromwell’s home, placed there by agents of the duke of Norfolk they were so inflammatory that the king was outraged. Cromwell’s name, Henry swore, would be abolished forever. Cromwell wrote two desperate letters from the Tower the one that survives is in tatters. He assured his monarch that he was a good, loyal servant and a faithful Christian. But Henry, surrounded by Cromwell’s enemies and – more significantly – newly infatuated with Norfolk’s niece, Catherine Howard, would hear nothing. Furthermore, Norfolk was shrewd enough to create a Lutheran conspiracy three popular reformers, Robert Barnes, Thomas Garret, and William Jerome, were executed just days after Cromwell. None of the men were allowed an open trial. That would allow the public opportunity for them to dispute the false charges. Instead, they were condemned by Act of Attainder, a parliamentary tool which dispensed with justice in favor of speed.

          The executed men were also neighbors of Cromwell, which was their only link to the earl. And they were as innocent as Cromwell of the charges against them – as evidenced by the confusion of contemporary chroniclers. Edward Hall, one of the great chroniclers of Tudor England, could find no real evidence against them although he ‘searched to know the truth’.

          So Cromwell was executed privately on Tower Green on 28 July 1540, still protesting his innocence. He died with dignity – but the whole sordid affair of his death would not rest. For the volatile Henry VIII was soon despairing of his loss, just a few months after he allowed the execution. He raged at his council, accusing them of lying and deliberately destroying his ‘most faithful servant’. Cromwell’s destruction had been engineered on ‘light pretexts’ and against the king’s wishes. In truth, Henry was a victim as well – of a determined group of nobles and clerics, led by Norfolk, who hated Cromwell and carried the king along on their path of destruction. Events were rapid and deliberately confused. By the time Henry realized what had happened, it was too late. He could only bemoan his loss, while never understanding exactly why it happened.

          This was no comfort to Thomas Cromwell, however after a lifetime of dedicated service, he met his end by execution and all of Henry’s regrets could not bring him back to life.


          Watch the video: Engage Loader DD Crankbait and Loader MR Crankbait with Patrick Sebile. First Look 2021 (January 2022).