History Podcasts

Noa II DD- 841 - History

Noa II DD- 841 - History

Noa II
(DD-841: dp. 2,425; 1. 390'6"; b. 41; dr. 19'; s. 35 k.; cpl. 350; a. 6 5", 12 40mm., 6 dcp., 2 act., 10 21" tt.; cl. Gearing)

The second Noa (DD 841) was laid down by the Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine, 26 March 1945; launched 30 July 1945, sponsored by Mrs. James Cary Jones, Jr., wife of Rear Admiral James Carv Jones, Jr., USN, and commissioned 2 November 1945, Comdr. R.L. Nolan, Jr., USN, in command.

After shakedown at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba Noa departed her homeport of Norfolk, Va. for her first Mediterranean deployment. She called at Gibraltar, Niee, Naples, Malta, Venice, Piraeus and Lisbon. After participating in fleet maneuvers in the South Atlantic in early 1947 Noa returned to the United States. For the next two years she exercised in type training, underwent overhaul and acted as school training ship for the Fleet Sonar School, Key West, Fla.

Noa served as rescue destroyer for Mindoro (CVE-120) during June and July 1949. From September 1949 through January 1951 she engaged in extended anti submarine training and a permanent Hunter-Killer Group as a unit of Destroyer Squadron Eight. She also made a second Mediterranean deployment during this period. In early 1951 she participated in Convex II, a large scale convoy escort exercise, after which she called at Baltimore, Md. The next two years were devoted to upkeep and operational type training along the East coast.

In August 1953 Noa departed Norfolk on a 42,000 mile around-the-world cruise. She arrived Sasebo, Japan 3 October and spent four months operating in the Sea of Japan with Task Force 77. Here she participated in operational readiness exercises while maintaining truce patrol off the Korean coast.

In November 1953 Noa operated in Japanese waters as part of a Hunter-Killer Group. She patrolled the Korean coast together with USS Cone (DD-866) in late November and early December. From then until her return to the United States in April 1954, Noa engaged in underway training. Upon her return to Norfolk she was reassigned to hunter-killer duty in the Atlantic.

During overhaul in the summer of 1955 Noa was outfitted with experimental sonar equipment that she tested in the Key West area. She departed Norfolk Naval Shipyard in February 1956 for her third Mediterranean deployment. Upon return to homeport the following summer she trained in the eastern Atlantic. In the spring 1957 she steamed to the Caribbean for operation Springboard 1-57 and Desairde 1-57.

After completion of a three month overhaul at Norfolk Naval Shipyard in August 1957 she steamed for five weeks of refresher training at Guantanarno and for shore bombardment exercises at Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. In winter of 1957-8, Noa served as test ship for experimental radio equipment and in spring 1958 she was again taking part in Sprinvaboard exercise in the Caribbean.

March 1957 saw Noa as a participant in Lantphibe 1-58, an exercise designed to test the latest amphibious warfare concepts. During the summer 1958 Noa participated in Sixth Fleet operations during the Lebanon crisis. After a short tour in the Persian Gulf she returned to Norfolk and joined the Second Fleet for Lantphibex 2-58.

In February 1959 Noa again deployed to the Mediterranean. She participated in Sixth Fleet exercises through April 1 when she steamed for the Middle East via the Suez Canal. She called at Massawa, Ethiopia, Bombay, India; Bahrein, Saudi Arabia; Bandar Shapir, Iran; and Aden. Late June Noa rejoined the Sixth Fleet after having gone eighty-three days without replenishment. She returned to Norfolk 1 September, and transferred from Destroyer Squadron Six to Squadron Fourteen, with a new homeport at Mayport, Fla. Through spring 1960 she operated off the Atlantic Coast and in the Caribbean, She entered the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 25 May for a FRAM I, and received the latest in ASW weapons.

Noa completed her Fram I overhaul 2 May 1961 and rejoined the Atlantic Fleet. After a four week Ready-for-Sea period and ASROC qualification trials she reported to Fleet Training Command, Guantanamo for six weeks refresher training. Noa returned to Mayport 23 July for a two week tender period alongside Yellowstone (AD-27).

Type training followed and Noa steamed for the United Kingdom, for combined exercises in the Eastern Atlantic with the British Navy. She arrived Portsmouth, England 6 November, and also called at Belfast and Dublin before standing in to homeport 20 December. After leave and upkeep Noa resumed ASW training 29 January 1962 in the western Atlantic.

Noa returned to Mayport 6 February for modifications to her boatdavits and briefings in preparation for the recovery of America's first astronaut and his space capsule. Preparations completed, she steamed 11 February for the Project Mercury Recovery area in the Southwestern Atlantic, she reported on station 14 February as part of the 24 ship recovery task force.

After two reschedulings of the space flight, Noa put m at San Juan for two days. She was underway 19 Februarv for the recovery station, located 200 miles WNW of San Juan. At precisely 1440, five hours and 53 minutes after blastoff, Friendship Seven reentered the atmosphere with a loud sonic boom that was clearly audible 20 February in Noa. She first sighted and recovered Lt. Col. John H. Glenn, Jr., USMC, Project Mercury Astronaut, after he had completed his historie three orbits of the earth and splashed down a mere three miles from the destroyer. Glenn remained in Noa for three hours before a helicopter transferrred him to Randolph (CVS-15), prime recovery ship.

Upon completion of recovery operations, Noa returned to Mayport for ASW operations with Task Group Alfa until 31 May. Noa has since conducted type training and midshipmen cruises out of her homeport between Mediterranean operational deployments and upkeep. She steamed for the Mediterranean 3 August 1962 for a seven month tour with the Sixth Fleet and 8 February 1964 saw her stand out of Mayport for another six month Mediterranean deployment.

Her regularly scheduled overhaul took place at Charlestown from September 1964 through January 1965, followed by a Mediterranean deployment from mid May through 1 Beptember. Early October 1965 Noa steamed from Mayport for the Gemini VI recovery off the west coast of Africa. The flight was cancelled after the Agena-B rocket designed to launch a docking vehicle failed to achieve an orbital insertlon.

Noa then participated in type training and Atlantic Fleet exerGises' inGluding H~h Time, an amphibious exercises in the Caribbean from late January through early March 1966. She also served as a unit of the Gemini 8 reGOvery forces 14 17 March 1966. Her April-October deployment to the Mediterranean was followed by leave, upkeep and Lantpex (28 November-15 December).

In January 1967 Noa received two QH-50 Drone AntiSubmarine Helicopters (DASH). She then served as school ship for the Fleet Sonar School at Key West (28 Januarv-11 February). Operation Springboard took her to the Caribbean 3-11 March and she steamed in Mediterranean waters June through November.

Noa stood out of Mayport 5 January 1968 to conduct a solemn mission—burial at sea of George H. Flynt, YN1 (Ret.). Flynt's last wish was that his remains be consigned to the deep. In honoring his request, made by a man who served bis country for 20 years, Noa's sailors gained insight into a unique ceremony for men of the sea.

Noa underwent regular availability and overhaul at Charleston commencing 8 January 1968. Work was completed 17 June and the destroyer was in Mayport 25 June. Because of excessive vibration m her starboard shaft, Noa returned to drydock at Charleston 8 July for one week. She steamed for Guantanamo for refresher training after which she returned to Mayport 11 September. Homeported once again the destroycr conducted maintenance and training and began preparation for deployment to the Pacific.

During October she was in restricted availability at Jacksonville for boiler repairs. She rode out hurricane Gladys 19 0ctober and spent the rest of the year in training and in preparation for 1969 deployment to WestPac.


Noa II DD- 841 - History

This page features additional views related to USS Decatur (DD-936, later DDG-31).

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the digital images presented here, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

Sikorski HSS-2 "Sea King" helicopter

Hovers near USS Decatur (DD-936), during HSS-2 carrier suitability trials.
USS Lake Champlain (CVS-39) is in the background.
Photograph is dated 17 May 1961.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

Online Image: 102KB 740 x 610 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system as Photo # 428-N-710896.

Receives serious topside damage in a collision with USS Lake Champlain (CVS-39), after suffering a steering casualty and running under the carrier's bow overhang, 6 May 1964.
Taken from the carrier's bridge. Note S-2 aircraft parked forward, and Decatur 's mainmast breaking away.
Halftone photograph copied from Decatur 's 1968 Cruise Book, page 1. The book is in the Collections of the Navy Department Library.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 107KB 740 x 560 pixels

Following her 6 May 1964 collision with USS Lake Champlain (CVS-39).
Note how Decatur 's superstructure has been crushed by being trapped under the carrier's overhang.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 89KB 740 x 620 pixels

Undergoing an inclining experiment, to determine her stability characteristics during the early stages of her conversion to a guided-missile destroyer, 12 August 1965.
Photographed at the Boston Naval Shipyard, Charlestown, Massachusetts.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 82KB 740 x 580 pixels

Undergoing conversion from a destroyer (DD-936) to a guided-missile destroyer (DDG-31), at the Boston Naval Shipyard, Charlestown, Massachusetts, circa 1966.
Halftone photograph copied from Decatur 's 1968 Cruise Book, page 2. The book is in the Collections of the Navy Department Library.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 97KB 740 x 600 pixels

UH-46D "Sea Knight" helicopter
(Bureau # 153412)

Lowers mail to the fantail of USS Decatur (DDG-31), during operations in the South China Sea, December 1968.
The helicopter is based aboard USS Camden (AOE-2).
Photographed by PH2 William M. Hopkins.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

Online Image: 113KB 740 x 535 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system as Photo # 428-N-1137085.

Comes alongside an oiler during underway replenishment operations, circa the 1970s.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the Collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 111KB 740 x 615 pixels

Electronics Warfare Technician 2nd Class William D. Ellis works on the countermeasures receiving set on board Decatur , during operations in the Western Pacific, 16 December 1976.
Photographed by PHC Ken George.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the Collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 92KB 740 x 600 pixels

Crewmembers and guests stand at attention during the ship's decommissioning ceremonies, at Naval Station San Diego, California, 30 June 1983.
Photographed by PH1 Vickie Kehoe.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the Collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 87KB 740 x 525 pixels

Crewmen line the rail during the ship's decommissioning ceremonies, at Pier 6, Naval Station San Diego, California, 30 June 1983.
Photographed by PH1 Vickie Kehoe.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the Collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 120KB 740 x 525 pixels

Crew members disembark for the last time at the conclusion of the ship's decommissioning ceremonies, at Naval Station San Diego, California, 30 June 1983.
Photographed by PH1 Vickie Kehoe.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the Collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 77KB 740 x 525 pixels

Crew members stand at attention on Pier 6, as officers disembark at the conclusion of the ship's decommissioning ceremonies, at Naval Station San Diego, California, 30 June 1983.
Photographed by PH1 Vickie Kehoe.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the Collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 80KB 740 x 525 pixels

Insignia: USS Decatur (DD-936)

Cloth jacket patch featuring the ship's emblem, as used in 1960.
Its motto, "Our Country -- May She Ever Be Right", is based on Commodore Stephen Decatur's April 1816 toast: "Our County! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right but our country, right or wrong."


Contents

Bath Iron Works was incorporated in 1884 by General Thomas W. Hyde, a native of Bath who served in the American Civil War. After the war, he bought a shop that made windlasses and other iron hardware for the wooden ships built in Bath's many shipyards. He expanded the business by improving its practices, entering new markets, and acquiring other local businesses. By 1882, Hyde Windlass was eyeing the new and growing business of iron shipbuilding, and it incorporated as Bath Iron Works in 1884. On February 28, 1890, BIW won its first contract for complete vessels: two iron gunboats for the Navy. One of these 190-foot (58 m) ships was the Machias, the first ship launched by the company. In 1892, the yard won its first commercial contract for the 2,500-ton steel passenger steamer City of Lowell. In the 1890s, the company built several yachts for wealthy sailors.

In 1899, Hyde was suffering from Bright's Disease and resigned from management of the shipyard, leaving his sons Edward and John in charge. The shipyard began construction of Georgia that same year, the only battleship ever built in Bath. It dominated the yard for five years until its launching in 1904, and was at times the only ship under construction. The yard faced numerous challenges because of the weight of armor and weapons. In sea trials, Georgia averaged 19.26 knots (35.67 km/h 22.16 mph) for four hours, making her the fastest ship in her class and the fastest battleship in the United States Navy at the time. The company continued to rely on Navy contracts, which provided 86-percent of the value of new contracts between 1905 and 1917. The yard also produced fishing trawlers, freighters, and yachts throughout the first half of the century. These included Vanda, Hi-Esmaro, Aras I and Aras II, Caroline, and Corsair IV, which later served as a cruise ship before sinking off Acapulco, Mexico in 1949. [2] The shipyard was at peak production during World War II (1943–1944) and launched a destroyer every 17 days. Bath Iron Works ranked 50th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. [3] In 1981, Falcon Transport ordered two tankers, the last commercial vessels built by BIW.

USS Samuel B. Roberts was commissioned at Bath in 1986, and it survived a mine explosion which tore a hole in its engine room and flooded two compartments. Over the next two years, BIW repaired the ship in unique fashion. The guided missile frigate was towed to the company's dry dock in Portland, Maine, and put up on blocks, where the damaged engine room was cut out of the ship. Meanwhile, workers in Bath built a 315-ton replacement, and the module was floated south to Portland, placed on the dry dock, slid into place under the frigate, jacked up, and welded into place. [4] In 1995, Bath Iron Works was bought by General Dynamics. In 2001, the company wrapped up a four-year effort to build the Land Level Transfer Facility, an enormous concrete platform for final assembly of its ships, instead of building them on a sloping way so that they could slide into the Kennebec at launch. Hulls are now moved by rail from the platform horizontally onto a moveable dry dock, which greatly reduced the work involved in building and launching the ships. [5] The 750-foot (230 m), 28,000-ton dry dock was built by China's Jiangdu Yuchai Shipbuilding Company for $27 million. [6]

In 2015, Bath Iron Works signed contracts with US Navy to build new Arleigh Burke-class destroyers, as well as to conduct maintenance sustainment support of Independence-class littoral combat ships built by competitor Austal USA. [7] The shipyard delivered USS Rafael Peralta and USS Thomas Hudner and is working on USS Daniel Inouye and USS Carl M. Levin. The DDG block buy for Bath also includes USS John Basilone, USS Harvey C. Barnum Jr., and USS Louis H. Wilson Jr.. On March 27, Bath received a $610.4 million contract modification to build John Basilone. This ship was funded in the 2015 defense appropriations act. [8]

In 2020, 4,300 workers, all members of the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, voted to go on strike following the failure to agree to new labor contracts between the company and union members. [9]


Noa II DD- 841 - History

Baylor beats Gonzaga for first men’s basketball title

Watch 2021's 'One Shining Moment'

The defining moments from Baylor's championship win

Final Four MOP Jared Butler's top title game highlights

MaCio Teague scores 19 points in national title game

Top dunks from the national championship game

Jalen Suggs' OT game-winning buzzer beater, from every angle

The Catch-Up

Condensed Games

Baylor tops undefeated Gonzaga for first-ever title

Gonzaga beats UCLA on Jalen Suggs' OT buzzer beater

Baylor routs Houston to head to national title game

UCLA upsets Michigan to continue run from First Four to Final Four

Gonzaga crushes USC, enters Final Four undefeated

Baylor tops Arkansas, ends 71-year Final Four drought

Houston holds off Oregon State to make first Final Four since 1984

UCLA upsets Alabama in overtime classic to reach Elite Eight

Oral Roberts pulls off 15-2 upset over Ohio State

Dunks of the Day

Here are the best dunks from Monday's national championship

Here are the biggest dunks for Saturday's Final Four

Here are the biggest dunks from Tuesday's Elite Eight

Check out Monday's Elite Eight throw downs

Sweet 16 closes with some dazzling dunks

Here are the top dunks from Saturday's Sweet 16

Watch 20 of the best dunks through the second round of the 2021 NCAA tournament


When the Nazis Tried to Bring Animals Back From Extinction

Born to the director of the Berlin Zoo, Lutz Heck seemed destined for the world of wildlife. But instead of simply protecting animals, Heck had a darker relationship with them: he hunted and experimented with them.

In the new movie The Zookeeper’s Wife (based on a nonfiction book of the same title by Diane Ackerman), Heck is the nemesis of Warsaw zookeepers Antonina and Jan Zabinski, who risk their lives to hide Jews in cages that once held animals. All told, the couple smuggled around 300 Jewish people through their zoo. Not only was Heck tasked with pillaging the Warsaw Zoo for animals that could be sent to Germany, he was also at work on project that began before the Nazis came to power: reinvent nature by bringing extinct species back to life.

Lutz and his younger brother, Heinz, grew up surrounded by animals and immersed in animal breeding, beginning with small creatures like rabbits. At the same time that the boys learned more about these practices, zoologists around Europe were engaged in debates about the role of humans in preventing extinction and creating new species.

“It was kicked off by all kinds of what we would consider quite weird experiments. People were trying to breed ligers and tigons,” says Clemens Driessen, a researcher in cultural geography at Wageningen University and Research in the Netherlands.

While breeders’ imaginations ran wild with thoughts of new species to create, closer to home, European bison, known as wisent, were going extinct in the wild. Scientists began to consider the role of zoos could play in keeping the species alive—and in Germany, to combine those answers with theories about the supposed “purity” of long-gone landscapes.

Should wisent be revitalized using American bison as breeding stock? Would the resulting offspring still be considered proper bison? As they grew older, the Heck brothers were immersed in these same questions.

According to an article written by Driessen and co-author Jamie Lorimer, Heinz saw the extinction of the wisent as the natural progression of the result of nomadic tribes overhunting. His brother, on the other hand, became more and more interested in what he considered to be “primeval German game”—an interest increasingly shared by Nazis who sought a return to a mythic German past free of racial impurities.

In his autobiography Animals: My Adventure Lutz describes being fascinated by animals he associated with that mythical past, especially wisent and the formidable aurochs.

Lutz Heck with a scaly anteater, 1940 (Sueddeutsche Zeitung Photo / Alamy Stock Photo)

Aurochs were large, horned cattle that went extinct in 1627 from excessive hunting and competition from domesticated cattle. The brothers believed they could recreate the animals through back-breeding: choosing existing cattle species for the right horn shape, coloration and behavior, then breeding them until they had something approximating the original animal. This was before the discovery of DNA’s double helix, so everything the brothers looked to for information on aurochs was from archaeological finds and written records. They believed that since modern cattle descended from aurochs, different cattle breeds contained the traces of their more ancient lineage.

“What my brother and I now had to do was to unite in a single breeding stock all those characteristics of the wild animal which are now found only separately in individual animals,” Heck wrote in his book. Their plan was the inverse of Russian experiments to create domesticated foxes through selective breeding—rather than breed forward with particular traits in mind, they thought they could breed backwards to eliminate the aspects of their phenotype that made them domesticated. (Similar experiments have been picked back up by modern scientists hoping to create aurochs once more, and by scientists trying to recreate the extinct quagga. Researchers disagree over whether this type of de-extinction is possible.)

The brothers traveled the continent, selecting everything from fighting cattle in Spain to Hungarian steppe cattle to create their aurochs. They studied skulls and cave paintings to decide what aurochs should look like, and both claimed success at reviving aurochs by the mid-1930s. Their cattle were tall with large horns and aggressive personalities, capable of surviving with limited human care, and in modern times would come to be called Heck cattle. The animals were spread around the country, living everywhere from the Munich Zoo to a forest on the modern-day border of Poland and Russia.

But despite their shared interest in zoology and animal husbandry, the brothers’ paths diverged greatly as the Nazis rose to power. In the early 1930s, Heinz was among the first people interned at Dachau as a political prisoner for suspected membership in the Communist Party and his brief marriage to a Jewish woman. Though Heinz was released, it was clear he would never be a great beneficiary of Nazi rule, nor did he seem to support their ideology focused on the purity of nature and the environment.

Lutz joined the Nazi Party early in its reign, and earned himself a powerful ally: Hermann Göring, Adolf Hilter’s second-in-command. The two men bonded over a shared interest in hunting and recreating ancestral German landscapes. Göring amassed political titles like trading cards, serving in many positions at once: he became the prime minister of Prussia, commander in chief of the Luftwaffe, and Reich Hunt Master and Forest Master. It was in this last position that he bestowed the title of Nature Protection Authority to Lutz, a close friend, in 1938.

Hermann Göring (Wikimedia Commons)

“Göring saw the opportunity to make nature protection part of his political empire,” says environmental historian Frank Uekotter. “He also used the funds [from the Nature Protection Law of 1935] for his estate.” The law, which created nature reserves, allowed for the designation of natural monuments, and removed the protection of private property rights, had been up for consideration for years before the Nazis came to power. Once the Nazis no longer had the shackles of the democratic process to hold them back, Göring quickly pushed the law through to enhance his prestige and promote his personal interest in hunting.

Lutz continued his back-breeding experiments with support from Göring, experimenting with tarpans (wild horses, whose Heck-created descendants still exist today) and wisent. Lutz’s creations were released in various forests and hunting reserves, where Göring could indulge his wish to recreate mythic scenes from the German epic poem Nibelungenlied (think the German version of Beowulf), in which the Teutonic hero Siegfried kills dragons and other creatures of the forest.

“Göring had a very peculiar interest in living a kind of fantasy of carrying spears and wearing peculiar dress,” Driessen says. “He had this eerie combination of childish fascination [with the poem] with the power of a murderous country behind it.” In practical terms, this meant seizing land from Poland, especially the vast wilderness of Białowieża Forest, then using it to create his own hunting reserves. This fit into the larger Nazi ideology of lebensraum, or living space, and a return to the heroic past.

“On the one hand National Socialism embraced modernity and instrumental rationality something found in the Nazi emphasis on engineering, eugenics, experimental physics and applied mathematics,” write geographers Trevor Barnes and Claudio Minca. “On the other hand was National Socialism’s other embrace: a dark anti-modernity, the anti-enlightenment. Triumphed were tradition, a mythic past, irrational sentiment and emotion, mysticism, and a cultural essentialism that turned easily into dogma, prejudice, and much, much worse.”

In 1941 Lutz went to the Warsaw Zoo to oversee its transition to German hands. After selecting the species that would be most valuable to German zoos, he organized a private hunting party to dispatch with the rest. “These animals could not be recuperated for any meaningful reason, and Heck, with his companions, enjoyed killing them,” writes Jewish studies scholar Kitty Millet.

Millet sees an ominous connection to the Nazi ideology of racial purity. “The assumption was that the Nazis were the transitional state to the recovery of Aryan being,” Millet wrote in an email. In order to recover that racial purity, says Millet, “nature had to be transformed from a polluted space to a Nazi space.”

While Driessen sees little direct evidence of Lutz engaging with those ideas, at least in his published research, Lutz did correspond with Eugen Fischer, one of the architects of Nazi eugenics.

But his work creating aurochs and wisent for Göring shared the same conclusion as other Nazi projects. Allied forces killed the wild animals as they closed in on the Germans at the end of the war. Some Heck cattle descended from those that survived the end of the war in zoos still exist, and their movement around Europe has become a source of controversy that renews itself every few years. They’ve also been tagged as a possible component of larger European rewilding programs, such as the one envisioned by Stichting Taurus, a Dutch conservationist group Stichting Taurus.

With scientists like the Dutch and others considering the revival of extinct wildlife to help restore disturbed environments, Uekotter thinks Heck’s role in the Nazi Party can serve as a cautionary tale. “There is no value-neutral position when you talk about the environment. You need partners and, [compared to gridlock that happens in democracy,] there is a lure of the authoritarian regime that things are all of a sudden very simple,” Uekotter says. “The Nazi experience shows what you can end up with if you fall for this in a naïve way.”


Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020, Public Law 116-94

Salary Limitation

The General Provisions in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020 (Public Law 116-94), signed into law on December 20, 2019, includes provisions for a salary rate limitation. The law limits the salary amount that may be awarded and charged to ACL grants and cooperative agreements. Award funds may not be used to pay the salary of an individual at a rate in excess of Executive Level II. The Executive Level II salary of the Federal Executive Pay scale is $197,300[HL(1] . This amount reflects an individual’s base salary exclusive of fringe and any income that an individual may be permitted to earn outside of the duties to the applicant organization. This salary limitation also applies to subawards/subcontracts under an ACL grant or cooperative agreement. Note that these or other salary limitations will apply in FY 2020, as required by law[CR(2] .

Gun Control (Section 217) “None of the funds made available in this title may be used, in whole or in part, to advocate or promote gun control.”

Restriction on Distribution of Sterile Needles (Section 522) "Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, no funds appropriated in this Act shall be used to carry out any program of distributing sterile needles or syringes for the hypodermic injection of any illegal drug.”

Anti-Lobbying (Section 503)

a. No part of any appropriation contained in this Act or transferred pursuant to section 4002 of Public Law 111–148 shall be used, other than for normal and recognized executive legislative relationships, for publicity or propaganda purposes, for the preparation, distribution, or use of any kit, pamphlet, booklet, publication, electronic communication, radio, television, or video presentation designed to support or defeat the enactment of legislation before the Congress or any state or local legislature or legislative body, except in presentation to the Congress or any state or local legislature itself, or designed to support or defeat any proposed or pending regulation, administrative action, or order issued by the executive branch of any state or local government, except in presentation to the executive branch of any state or local government itself.

b. No part of any appropriation contained in this Act or transferred pursuant to section 4002 of Public Law 111–148 shall be used to pay the salary or expenses of any grant or contract recipient, or agent acting for such recipient, related to any activity designed to influence the enactment of legislation, appropriations, regulation, administrative action, or Executive order proposed or pending before the Congress or any state government, state legislature or local legislature or legislative body, other than for normal and recognized executive-legislative relationships or participation by an agency or officer of a state, local or tribal government in policy-making and administrative processes within the executive branch of that government.

c. The prohibitions in subsections (a) and (b) shall include any activity to advocate or promote any proposed, pending or future federal, state or local tax increase, or any proposed, pending, or future requirement or restriction on any legal consumer product, including its sale or marketing, including but not limited to the advocacy or promotion of gun control."


B. Procedure – special Inmate Information provided b BOP under the SSA/BOP computer reporting agreements

1. BOP Inmate Information 04/04/02 and continuing

BOP Data on PUPS Alert/Report

Information About the BOP Inmate Data

BOP will provide conviction information for an inmate who has been officially sentenced by a Federal court. BOP gives SSA this information only if the inmate's conviction information is available in their records.

NOTE : There will be some circumstances in which SSA will deem a conviction date for blank or invalid conviction. (See GN 02607.792D.1.b. for processing instructions.)

Convicted (individual has been convicted of a crime i.e. felony or misdemeanor).

NOTE : If the inmate Status code is “Y” and the conviction date is blank on the PUPS Record/Alert, assume the inmate has been convicted of a criminal offense. (See GN 02607.792D.1.b. for processing.)

Confined but not convicted (individual is confined in a correctional institution but has not been convicted of a crime).

Parole/Probation Violator (individual has violated parole or probation). An official determination has been made to return the individual to confinement at a correctional institution.

MM/DD/YYYY and the Inmate Status Code is:

For the Inmate Status Codes of "Y" or "C," BOP provides a date of confinement equal to the date that BOP assigns the inmate to the correctional facility and is under BOP custody.

MM/DD/YYYY and the Inmate Status Code is:

The date for code “P” represents the date the inmate was returned to BOP custody because the inmate's parole or probation has been officially revoked.

BOP does not provide SSA with released dates. See GN 02607.794D for information on obtaining released date information for BOP inmates that are no longer in BOP custody.

Correctional Facility Identification Code

BOP provides SSA with a 3 digit-facility code the PUPS system converts into a 6-digit BOP facility code located on IRCS. PUPS will translate the 6-digit code to the name of the correlating correctional facility on actionable PUPS alerts.

See GN 02607.792D.2. for instructions on determining the FID code if it is blank on the PUPS alert.

NOTE : BOP's correctional facility code represents the inmate's place of confinement or destination of confinement at the time the report was prepared. If the inmate is "In-Transit" from one BOP correctional facility to another, the facility code will change from one monthly report to another.

NOTE : For additional information about 3BOP Inmate Status Codes, see GN 02607.795.

2. BOP Inmate Information 04/01/00 through 04/03/02

BOP Data on PUPS Alert/Report

Information About the BOP Inmate Data

BOP will provide conviction information for an inmate who has been officially sentenced by a Federal court. BOP gives SSA this information only if the inmate's conviction information is available in their records.

NOTE : There will be some circumstances in which SSA will deem a conviction date for blank or invalid conviction. (See GN 02607.792D.1.b. for processing instructions.)

Convicted (individual has been convicted of a crime, i.e., felony or misdemeanor). (The penalty for the crime generally carries a sentence of over 1 year.)

NOTE : If the inmate Status code is “Y” and the conviction date is blank on the PUPS Record/Alert, assume the inmate has been convicted of a criminal offense. See GN 02607.792D.1.b. for processing.

Convicted of a criminal offense. (The penalty for the crime generally carries a sentence of 12 months or less.)

NOTE : If the inmate Status code is “S” and the conviction date is blank on the PUPS Record/Alert, assume the inmate has been convicted of a criminal offense. See GN 02607.792D.1.b. for processing

Convicted of a criminal offense. (The penalty for the criminal offense is not available in BOP records.)

NOTE : If the inmate Status code is “N” and the conviction date is blank on the PUPS Record/Alert, assume the inmate has been convicted of a criminal offense. See GN 02607.792D.1.b. for processing.

Confined but not convicted (individual is confined in a correctional institution but has not been convicted of a crime). This category includes pre-trial inmates, individuals awaiting medical/mental examinations, detainees, etc.

MM/DD/YYYY and the Inmate Status Code is:

For the Inmate Status Codes of "Y," "S," and "N," BOP provides a date of confinement equal to the date that BOP the inmate to the correctional facility and is under BOP custody.

MM/DD/YYYY and the Inmate Status Code is:

BOP will provide the date the inmate was admitted to a BOP facility.

NOTE: If multiple reports of confinement are received for the same inmate and the inmate status code remains “D” and the reporter code remains “3BOP,” assume the earliest reported date of confinement for this inmate will be the actual initial date of confinement.

BOP does not provide SSA with released dates. See GN 02607.794D.1.c. for information on obtaining released date information for BOP inmates that are no longer in BOP custody.

Correctional Facility Identification Code

BOP provides SSA with a 3 digit-facility code the PUPS system converts into a 6-digit BOP facility code located on IRCS. PUPS will translate the 6-digit code to the name of the correlating correctional facility on actionable PUPS alerts.

See GN 02607.792D.2. for instructions on determining the FID code if it is blank on the PUPS alert.

NOTE : BOP's correctional facility code represents the inmate's place of confinement or destination of confinement at the time the report was prepared. If the inmate is “In-Transit” from one BOP correctional facility to another, the facility code will change from one monthly report to another.

3. BOP Inmate Information 02/01/95 through 03/31/00

BOP Data on PUPS Alert/Report

Information About the BOP Inmate Data

BOP will provide conviction information for an inmate who has been officially sentenced by a Federal court. BOP gives SSA this information only if the inmate's conviction information is available in their records.

NOTE : There will be some circumstances in which SSA will deem a conviction date for blank or invalid conviction. (See GN 02607.792D.1.b. for processing instructions.)

Convicted (individual has been convicted of a crime that carries a sentence of over 1 year).

NOTE : If the inmate Status code is “Y” and the conviction date is blank on the PUPS Record/Alert, assume the inmate has been convicted of a criminal offense. (See GN 02607.792D.1.b. for processing.)

Convicted of a crime and individual is sentenced to 12 months or less.

NOTE : If the inmate Status code is “S” and the conviction date is blank on the PUPS Record/Alert, assume the inmate has been convicted of a criminal offense. See GN 02607.792D.1.b. for processing.

Convicted of a crime and the length of sentence for the crime is unknown.

NOTE : If the inmate Status code is “N” and the conviction date is blank on the PUPS Record/Alert, assume the inmate has been convicted of a crime that carries a sentence of over 1 year. See GN 02607.792D.1.b. for processing.

Confined but not convicted (individual is confined in a correctional institution but has not been convicted of a crime). This category includes pre-trial inmates, individuals awaiting medical/mental examinations, detainees, etc.

MM/DD/YYYY and the Inmate Status Code is:

For the Inmate Status Codes of “Y,” “S,” and “N,” BOP provides a date of confinement equal to the date that BOP assigns the inmate to the correctional facility and is under BOP custody.

MM/DD/YYYY and the Inmate Status Code is:

BOP will provide the date the inmate was admitted to a BOP facility.

NOTE: If multiple reports of confinement are received for the same inmate and the inmate status code remains “D” and the reporter code remains “3BOP,” assume the earliest reported date of confinement for this inmate will be the actual initial date of confinement.

BOP does not provide SSA with released dates. See GN 02607.794D for information on obtaining released date information for BOP inmates that are no longer in BOP custody.

Correctional Facility Identification Code

BOP provides SSA with a 3 digit-facility code the PUPS system converts into a 6-digit BOP facility code located on IRCS. PUPS will translate the 6-digit code to the name of the correlating correctional facility on actionable PUPS alerts.

See GN 02607.792D.2. for instructions on determining the FID code if it is blank on the PUPS alert.

NOTE : BOP's correctional facility code represents the inmate's place of confinement or destination of confinement at the time the report was prepared. If the inmate is "In-Transit" from one BOP correctional facility to another, the facility code will change from one monthly report to another.


Bible Commentaries

There were two King Ahaziahs as there were two King Jehorams, one of each in each kingdom. Both Ahaziahs reigned only one year each, but their administrations did not overlap. The administrations of the two Jehorams did overlap. Ahaziah of Israel reigned 11 years earlier than Ahaziah of Judah. In Judah, Jehoram (853-841 B.C) preceded Ahaziah (841 B.C.), but in Israel Ahaziah (853-852 B.C.) preceded Jehoram (852-841 B.C.).

Year Southern (Judean) King Northern (Israelite) King
853 Ahaziah
852
851
850
849
848Jehoram
847
846 J(eh)oram
845
844
843
842
841
Ahaziah

Verses 1-13

God&rsquos preparation of Jehu 9:1-13

God had told Elijah that he would anoint Jehu ( 1 Kings 19:16 ). [Note: For more information on anointing with oil ( 2 Kings 9:3 2 Kings 9:6 ), see my note on 1 Samuel 16:13.] He did this through his successor Elisha who accomplished it by using one of his protégés ( 2 Kings 9:1 ). Jehu would wipe out Omri&rsquos dynasty in Israel ( 2 Kings 9:7-10 ). Jehu&rsquos father was a different Jehoshaphat from Judah&rsquos king of the same name ( 2 Kings 9:2 ). Elijah had prophesied the end of Ahab&rsquos line ( 1 Kings 21:21-22 1 Kings 21:29 ) and Jezebel&rsquos death ( 1 Kings 21:23 ). God had worked through prophets previously, especially Elijah and Elisha, and would continue to do so. However, Jehu was just as much an instrument in God&rsquos hand as the prophets, though his methods were not always proper. This is the only place in Kings where the writer emphasized Yahweh as avenging (cf. Nahum 1:2-3 ). Jehu was His instrument.

"At times the behavior of the prophet was unusual or abnormal, but a careful consideration of each of these instances will reveal some divine purpose or spiritual significance." [Note: Hobart E. Freeman, An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets, p. 60.]

"Jehu is the only king of the Northern Kingdom (Israel) to have been anointed, perhaps to indicate that he should follow in the Davidic tradition, as Saul had been anointed by Samuel ( 1 Samuel 9:16 1 Samuel 10:1 ) David by Samuel, to mark the Spirit of God endowing him for the task ( 1 Samuel 16:12-13 ) and Solomon by the high priest Zadok and Nathan the prophet ( 1 Kings 1:45 ). Such anointing was symbolic and probably confined to Hebrew practice (see also on 1 Kings 1:34 )." [Note: Wiseman, pp. 218-19.]

Verses 14-26

Jehu&rsquos assassination of Joram 9:14-26

Israel had evidently retaken Ramoth-gilead after Ben-Hadad I had defeated Ahab there 12 years earlier. Israel was now defending it against the attacking Arameans ( 2 Kings 9:14 ). The horsemen and Joram who asked Jehu, "Is it peace?" were asking if Israel had successfully defended Ramoth-gilead ( 2 Kings 9:17 2 Kings 9:19 2 Kings 9:22 ). Jehu&rsquos reply to the two horsemen, "What have you to do with peace?" ( 2 Kings 9:18-19 ) was somewhat enigmatic and meant, "Don&rsquot worry." He did not answer their question. They probably concluded that he did not want to say anything until he saw the king. When Joram asked him about peace, Jehu replied that there could be no peace for Israel as long as Israel&rsquos leaders allowed Jezebel&rsquos sins to continue ( 2 Kings 9:22 ). Jezebel was a spiritual harlot, having pursued many idols. Her witchcraft (Heb. kesapim , lit. sorceries) involved seeking information from demonic forces (cf. Isaiah 47:9 Isaiah 47:12 Micah 5:12 Nahum 3:4 ). This was a capital offense under the Mosaic Law ( Exodus 22:18 Deuteronomy 18:10-12 ). Joram realized Jehu&rsquos words spelled treason, and he began to flee. He had evidently not worn his armor, and Jehu killed him easily with an arrow ( 2 Kings 9:24 ). Jehu desired to fulfill the prophecy of Ahab&rsquos punishment ( 2 Kings 9:26 cf. 1 Kings 21:21-22 ). God had mitigated Ahab&rsquos judgment because he had repented ( 1 Kings 21:29 ), but now his descendants were reaping the consequences, as God had promised. 2 Kings 9:26 adds that Jezebel had executed Naboth&rsquos sons, too. The writer did not record this earlier. Perhaps she sought to preclude any claims that Naboth&rsquos descendants could have made to his lands later. These additional murders also violated the Mosaic Law ( Leviticus 25:25 Numbers 36:7 ).

Verses 27-29

Jehu&rsquos assassination of Ahaziah 9:27-29

Jehu executed Ahaziah because he was a member of Ahab&rsquos family. He died an ignominious death because of his wickedness, as did the kings of Israel in Omri&rsquos dynasty. Nevertheless Ahaziah received an honorable burial ( 2 Kings 9:28 ).

The period of alliance that ran contemporaneously with Omri&rsquos dynasty, beginning with Ahab, concluded when Joram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah died (in 841 B.C.). Though Ahab and Jehoshaphat undoubtedly intended to bring strength to both kingdoms through this alliance, it had the opposite effect because of the wicked influence of Ahab&rsquos house. The Lord had forbidden alliances with ungodly nations, so Judah suffered His discipline for entering into this one. Relying on human allies rather than Yahweh weakened both kingdoms. Jehu&rsquos assassinations terminated not only two kings of Israel and Judah but the alliance of the two nations as well.

Verses 30-36

1. Jehu&rsquos evil reign in Israel 9:30-10:36

Since the writer did not record Jehu&rsquos coronation, we should probably regard his reign as beginning when Joram died ( 2 Kings 9:24 ). Jehu began Israel&rsquos fifth and longest royal dynasty. He and his descendants reigned 88 years (841-753 B.C.). He himself reigned 28 years (841-814 B.C.). His contemporaries in Judah were Queen Athaliah and King Joash.

"The usual formula to introduce a king is lacking in the case of Jehu because of the unique and violent nature of his rise to power." [Note: Merrill, "2 Kings," p. 278.]

Verses 30-37

Jehu&rsquos execution of Jezebel 9:30-37

Jezebel evidently painted her eyes and adorned her head ( 2 Kings 9:30 ) to receive Jehu. Unwittingly, or perhaps deliberately, [Note: Patterson and Austel, p. 209.] she prepared herself for her own death. At least one interpreter believed she was trying to seduce Jehu. [Note: S. Parker, "Jezebel&rsquos Reception of Jehu," Maarav 1 (1978):67-78.] Her greeting to Jehu may have been a sarcastic, derogatory threat ( 2 Kings 9:31 ). [Note: Gray, p. 551.] She asked, "Is it peace?" as the two horsemen and Joram had ( 2 Kings 9:17 2 Kings 9:19 2 Kings 9:22 ). However she meant, "Have you established peace (by assassinating the king)?" She implied he had not by calling him Zimri. Zimri was the rebel who, about 44 years earlier, had assassinated his king, Elah, only to die seven days later at the hand of Jezebel&rsquos father-in-law, Omri ( 1 Kings 16:8-10 1 Kings 16:17-19 ). Jezebel implied that Jehu would suffer a similar fate. This interpretation seems better than that Jezebel saw Jehu as a rebel but complemented him on being the one who pruned Omri&rsquos dynasty. [Note: Saul Olyan, "2 Kings 9:31-Jehu as Zimri," Harvard Theological Review 78:1 (1985):203-7.] Wiseman believed Jezebel wanted to reach a peaceful agreement with Jehu. By calling him Zimri she was not referring to Jehu as a traitor but as a hero (Ugaritic dmr ). [Note: Wiseman, p. 223.] This seems unlikely to me. "Zimri" may have become synonymous with "traitor" by this time. [Note: Giorgio Buccellali, Cities and Nations of Ancient Syria, p. 203.]

"On the surface Jezebel&rsquos actions seem contradictory. On the one hand, she beautifies herself as if to seduce Jehu, but on the other hand, she insults and indirectly threatens him with this comparison to Zimri. Upon further reflection, however, her actions reveal a clear underlying motive. She wants to retain her power, not to mention her life. By beautifying herself, she appeals to Jehu&rsquos sexual impulses by threatening him, she reminds him that he is in the same precarious position as Zimri. But, if he makes Jezebel his queen, he can consolidate his power. In other words through her actions and words Jezebel is saying to Jehu, &rsquoYou desire me, don&rsquot you? And you need me!&rsquo" [Note: The NET Bible note on 9:31.]

In response to Jehu&rsquos question, "Who is on my side?" a few officers (Heb. saris ), who acted as harem attendants, threw Jezebel out of her upper-story window. The way Jehu treated Jezebel&rsquos body shows his complete lack of respect for her. Rather than mourning her death, he feasted. He fulfilled Elijah&rsquos prophecy of how God would end her life ( 1 Kings 21:23 ). She who had ordered the murders of Naboth and his sons died on the very ground she had stolen from them. This was the same plot of ground where Jehu had thrown Joram&rsquos corpse ( 2 Kings 9:24-26 ). Yahweh and the godly people of Israel shared Jehu&rsquos lack of respect for the queen. Jezebel had been responsible for much of the apostasy, wickedness, and consequent divine discipline that had plagued Israel for over 30 years. As always in Kings, the writer recorded the type of death a person died to document God&rsquos faithfulness in blessing the obedient and cursing the disobedient. [Note: For interesting insights into the spirit of Jezebel and how to combat it, see Francis Frangipane, The Three Battlegrounds, pp. 97-120.]

When Jehu occupied Jezreel, he had not yet established himself as Israel&rsquos king. Jezreel was only a secondary residence of Ahab&rsquos royal family, after Samaria. [Note: Siegfried Herrmann, A History of Israel in Old Testament Times, p. 221.]


AlloSure Heart was clinically validated in three independent, prospective studies:

  • CARGO II—mean dd-cfDNA 2.9x greater among biopsy-proven rejection vs. quiescent samples 3,4
  • Cedars-Sinai Study—in sensitized population, mean dd-cfDNA 3x greater among biopsy-proven AMR vs. biopsy-negative samples¹
  • Donor‐Derived Cell‐Free DNA‐Outcomes AlloMap Registry (D‐OAR) study¹
    • Study Design—prospective study conducted across 26 U.S. transplant centers
    • 841 plasma samples from 443 patients

    Original JM6-S JagerMech from TRO:3025

    JM-6 JagerMech from TRO:3050

    JM6-DD JagerMech from TRO:3050 Upgrade

    Token of JagerMech from BattleTech, Fourth Edition

    JagerMech in colors of Liao Reserves from Camo Specs

    A JagerMech of 1st Davion Guards during a weapon test from Classic BattleTech Universe


    Watch the video: WW2 US Navy ship USS Noa DD-841 - WW2 USNAVY Buque USS Noa DD-841 (December 2021).